0
Research Papers: Evaporation, Boiling, and Condensation

Bubble Lifecycle During Heterogeneous Nucleate Boiling

[+] Author and Article Information
Vinod Pandey, Amaresh Dalal

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati,
Guwahati 781 039, India

Gautam Biswas

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati,
Guwahati 781 039, India
e-mail: gtm@iitg.ernet.in

Samuel W. J. Welch

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Colorado at Denver,
Denver, CO 80217;
Health Sciences Center,
Denver, CO 80217

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received December 10, 2017; final manuscript received July 31, 2018; published online September 5, 2018. Editor: Portonovo S. Ayyaswamy.

J. Heat Transfer 140(12), 121503 (Sep 05, 2018) (17 pages) Paper No: HT-17-1741; doi: 10.1115/1.4041088 History: Received December 10, 2017; Revised July 31, 2018

Heterogeneous nucleate boiling over a flat surface has been studied through complete numerical simulations. During the growth and departure of the vapor bubble, the interface is tracked following a coupled level-set and volume of fluid approach. A microlayer evaporation model similar to Sato and Niceno [“A depletable microlayer model for nucleate pool boiling,” J. Comput. Phys. 300, 20–52 (2015)] has been deployed in this investigation. A detailed study of the changes in microlayer structure as a result of different modes of boiling scenario has been performed. The departure diameter is found to increase with an increase in substrate superheat. The predicted departure diameter has been compared with the available experimental and analytical results. A power-law curve has been obtained for depicting the growth rate of bubble depending on the degree of superheat at the wall. The space–time averaged wall-heat flux at different values of superheat temperature of substrate is obtained. Bubble growth during subcooled boiling at a low and intermediate subcooled degree has been observed through direct numerical simulations. The variations in bubble dynamics after departure in saturated and subcooled liquid states have been compared.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Judd, R. , 1999, “ The Role of Bubble Waiting Time in Steady Nucleate Boiling,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 121(4), pp. 852–855. [CrossRef]
Kurihara, H. , and Myers, J. , 1960, “ The Effects of Superheat and Surface Roughness on Boiling Coefficients,” AIChE J., 6(1), pp. 83–91. [CrossRef]
Hsu, Y. , 1962, “ On the Size Range of Active Nucleation Cavities on a Heating Surface,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 84(3), pp. 207–213. [CrossRef]
Rohsenow, W. M. , 1951, “ A Method of Correlating Heat Transfer Data for Surface Boiling of Liquids,” MIT Division of Industrial Corporation, Cambridge, MA, Technical Report No. 5.
Tien, C. , 1962, “ A Hydrodynamic Model for Nucleate Pool Boiling,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 5(6), pp. 533–540. [CrossRef]
Zuber, N. , 1963, “ Nucleate Boiling. the Region of Isolated Bubbles and the Similarity With Natural Convection,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 6(1), pp. 53–78. [CrossRef]
Lienhard, J. , 1963, “ A Semi-Rational Nucleate Boiling Heat Flux Correlation,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 6(3), pp. 215–219. [CrossRef]
Forster, H. , and Zuber, N. , 1955, “ Dynamics of Vapor Bubbles and Boiling Heat Transfer,” AIChE J., 1(4), pp. 531–535. [CrossRef]
Fritz, W. , 1935, “ Maximum Volume of Vapor Bubbles,” Phys. Z., 11, pp. 379–384.
Cole, R. , 1967, “ Bubble Frequencies and Departure Volumes at Subatmospheric Pressures,” AIChE J., 13(4), pp. 779–783. [CrossRef]
Moore, F. D. , and Mesler, R. B. , 1961, “ The Measurement of Rapid Surface Temperature Fluctuations During Nucleate Boiling of Water,” AIChE J., 7(4), pp. 620–624. [CrossRef]
Hendricks, R. C. , and Sharp, R. R. , 1964, Initiation of Cooling Due to Bubble Growth on a Heating Surface, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.
Sharp, R. R. , 1964, The Nature of Liquid Film Evaporation During Nucleate Boiling, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.
Jawurek, H. , 1969, “ Simultaneous Determination of Microlayer Geometry and Bubble Growth in Nucleate Boiling,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 12(8), pp. 843IN1847–846IN2848. [CrossRef]
Voutsinos, C. , and Judd, R. , 1975, “ Laser Interferometric Investigation of the Microlayer Evaporation Phenomenon,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 97(1), pp. 88–92. [CrossRef]
Fath, H. , and Judd, R. , 1978, “ Influence of System Pressure on Microlayer Evaporation Heat Transfer,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 100(1), pp. 49–55. [CrossRef]
Cooper, M. , and Lloyd, A. , 1969, “ The Microlayer in Nucleate Pool Boiling,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 12(8), pp. 895–913. [CrossRef]
Yabuki, T. , and Nakabeppu, O. , 2014, “ Heat Transfer Mechanisms in Isolated Bubble Boiling of Water Observed With MEMS Sensor,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 76, pp. 286–297. [CrossRef]
Utaka, Y. , Kashiwabara, Y. , and Ozaki, M. , 2013, “ Microlayer Structure in Nucleate Boiling of Water and Ethanol at Atmospheric Pressure,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 57(1), pp. 222–230. [CrossRef]
Koffman, L. , and Plesset, M. , 1983, “ Experimental Observations of the Microlayer in Vapor Bubble Growth on a Heated Solid,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 105(3), pp. 625–632. [CrossRef]
Mikic, B. , Rohsenow, W. , and Griffith, P. , 1970, “ On Bubble Growth Rates,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 13(4), pp. 657–666. [CrossRef]
Lien, Y.-C. , 1969, “ Bubble Growth Rates at Reduced Pressure,” Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA. https://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/12532
Liaw, S.-P. , and Dhir, V. K. , 1989, “ Void Fraction Measurements During Saturated Pool Boiling of Water on Partially Wetted Vertical Surfaces,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 111(3), pp. 731–738. [CrossRef]
Wang, C. , and Dhir, V. K. , 1993, “ Effect of Surface Wettability on Active Nucleation Site Density During Pool Boiling of Water on a Vertical Surface,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 115(3), pp. 659–669. [CrossRef]
Lay, J. , and Dhir, V. K. , 1995, “ Shape of a Vapor Stem During Nucleate Boiling of Saturated Liquids,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 117(2), pp. 394–394. [CrossRef]
Wayner, P. C. , 1999, “ Intermolecular Forces in Phase-Change Heat Transfer: 1998 Kern Award Review,” AIChE J., 45(10), pp. 2055–2068. [CrossRef]
Sharma, A. , 1993, “ Relationship of Thin Film Stability and Morphology to Macroscopic Parameters of Wetting in the Apolar and Polar Systems,” Langmuir, 9(3), pp. 861–869. [CrossRef]
Lee, R. , and Nydahl, J. , 1989, “ Numerical Calculation of Bubble Growth in Nucleate Boiling From Inception Through Departure,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 111(2), pp. 474–479. [CrossRef]
Son, G. , Dhir, V. K. , and Ramanujapu, N. , 1999, “ Dynamics and Heat Transfer Associated With a Single Bubble During Nucleate Boiling on a Horizontal Surface,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 121(3), pp. 623–631. [CrossRef]
Son, G. , Ramanujapu, N. , and Dhir, V. K. , 2002, “ Numerical Simulation of Bubble Merger Process on a Single Nucleation Site During Pool Nucleate Boiling,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 124(1), pp. 51–62. [CrossRef]
Mukherjee, A. , and Dhir, V. K. , 2004, “ Study of Lateral Merger of Vapor Bubbles During Nucleate Pool Boiling,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 126(6), pp. 1023–1039. [CrossRef]
Yoon, H. Y. , Koshizuka, S. , and Oka, Y. , 2001, “ Direct Calculation of Bubble Growth, Departure, and Rise in Nucleate Pool Boiling,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 27(2), pp. 277–298. [CrossRef]
Das, A. , Das, P. , and Saha, P. , 2006, “ Heat Transfer During Pool Boiling Based on Evaporation From Micro and Macrolayer,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 49(19–20), pp. 3487–3499. [CrossRef]
Zhao, Y.-H. , Masuoka, T. , and Tsuruta, T. , 2002, “ Unified Theoretical Prediction of Fully Developed Nucleate Boiling and Critical Heat Flux Based on a Dynamic Microlayer Model,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 45(15), pp. 3189–3197. [CrossRef]
Kim, S. H. , Lee, G. C. , Kang, J. Y. , Moriyama, K. , Park, H. S. , and Kim, M. H. , 2017, “ The Role of Surface Energy in Heterogeneous Bubble Growth on Ideal Surface,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 108, pp. 1901–1909. [CrossRef]
Ramanujapu, N. , 1999, “ Study of Growth Rate, Departure Frequency and Shape of a Single Bubble During Saturated and Subcooled Nuclear Boiling,” Ph.D. prospectus, University of California, Los Angeles, CA.
Wu, J. , and Dhir, V. K. , 2010, “ Numerical Simulations of the Dynamics and Heat Transfer Associated With a Single Bubble in Subcooled Pool Boiling,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 132(11), p. 111501. [CrossRef]
Bankoff, S. , and Mikesell, R. , 1959, “ Bubble Growth Rates in Highly Subcooled Nucleate Boiling,” Chem. Eng. Prog., 29, pp. 95–102.
Robin, T. T. , and Snyder, N. W. , 1970, “ Bubble Dynamics in Subcooled Nucleate Boiling Based on the Mass Transfer Mechanism,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 13(2), pp. 305–318. [CrossRef]
Plesset, M. S. , and Prosperetti, A. , 1978, “ The Contribution of Latent Heat Transport in Subcooled Nucleate Boiling,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 21(6), pp. 725–734. [CrossRef]
Snyder, N. , and Robin, T. , 1969, “ Mass-Transfer Model in Subcooled Nucleate Boiling,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 91(3), pp. 404–411. [CrossRef]
Gunther, F. C. , 1951, “ Photographic Study of Surface-Boiling Heat Transfer to Water With Forced Convection,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 73, pp. 115–123.
Ibrahim, E. , and Judd, R. , 1985, “ An Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Subcooling on Bubble Growth and Waiting Time in Nucleate Boiling,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 107(1), pp. 168–174. [CrossRef]
Demiray, F. , and Kim, J. , 2004, “ Microscale Heat Transfer Measurements During Pool Boiling of Fc-72: Effect of Subcooling,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 47(14–16), pp. 3257–3268. [CrossRef]
Marek, R. , and Straub, J. , 2001, “ The Origin of Thermocapillary Convection in Subcooled Nucleate Pool Boiling,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 44(3), pp. 619–632. [CrossRef]
Goel, P. , Nayak, A. K. , Kulkarni, P. P. , and Joshi, J. B. , 2017, “ Experimental Study on Bubble Departure Characteristics in Subcooled Nucleate Pool Boiling,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 89, pp. 163–176. [CrossRef]
Welch, S. W. J. , and Wilson, J. , 2000, “ A Volume of Fluid Based Method for Fluid Flows With Phase Change,” J. Comput. Phys., 160(2), pp. 662–682. [CrossRef]
Agarwal, D. K. , Welch, S. W. J. , Biswas, G. , and Durst, F. , 2004, “ Planar Simulation of Bubble Growth in Film Boiling in Near-Critical Water Using a Variant of the VOF Method,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 126(3), pp. 329–338. [CrossRef]
Gerlach, D. , Tomar, G. , Biswas, G. , and Durst, F. , 2006, “ Comparison of Volume-of-Fluid Methods for Surface Tension-Dominant Two-Phase Flows,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 49(3–4), pp. 740–754. [CrossRef]
Tomar, G. , Biswas, G. , Sharma, A. , and Agrawal, A. , 2005, “ Numerical Simulation of Bubble Growth in Film Boiling Using a Coupled Level-Set and Volume-of-Fluid Method,” Phys. Fluids, 17(11), p. 112103. [CrossRef]
Welch, S. W. J. , and Biswas, G. , 2007, “ Direct Simulation of Film Boiling Including Electrohydrodynamic Forces,” Phys. Fluids, 19(1), p. 012106. [CrossRef]
Tomar, G. , Biswas, G. , Sharma, A. , and Welch, S. W. J. , 2008, “ Multimode Analysis of Bubble Growth in Saturated Film Boiling,” Phys. Fluids, 20(9), p. 092101. [CrossRef]
Hens, A. , Biswas, G. , and De, S. , 2014, “ Analysis of Interfacial Instability and Multimode Bubble Formation in Saturated Boiling Using Coupled Level Set and Volume-of-Fluid Approach,” Phys. Fluids, 26(1), p. 012105. [CrossRef]
Pandey, V. , Biswas, G. , and Dalal, A. , 2016, “ Effect of Superheat and Electric Field on Saturated Film Boiling,” Phys. Fluids, 28(5), p. 052102. [CrossRef]
Pandey, V. , Biswas, G. , and Dalal, A. , 2017, “ Saturated Film Boiling at Various Gravity Levels Under the Influence of Electrohydrodynamic Forces,” Phys. Fluids, 29(3), p. 032104. [CrossRef]
Chakraborty, I. , Ray, B. , Biswas, G. , Durst, F. , Sharma, A. , and Ghoshdastidar, P. , 2009, “ Computational Investigation on Bubble Detachment From Submerged Orifice in Quiescent Liquid Under Normal and Reduced Gravity,” Phys. Fluids, 21(6), p. 062103. [CrossRef]
Deka, H. , Ray, B. , Biswas, G. , Dalal, A. , Tsai, P.-H. , and Wang, A.-B. , 2017, “ The Regime of Large Bubble Entrapment During a Single Drop Impact on a Liquid Pool,” Phys. Fluids, 29(9), p. 092101. [CrossRef]
Ray, B. , Biswas, G. , and Sharma, A. , 2015, “ Regimes During Liquid Drop Impact on a Liquid Pool,” J. Fluid Mech., 768, pp. 492–523. [CrossRef]
Sato, Y. , and Niceno, B. , 2015, “ A Depletable Micro-Layer Model for Nucleate Pool Boiling,” J. Comput. Phys., 300, pp. 20–52. [CrossRef]
Kays, W. M. , and Crawford, M. E. , 1980, Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Brackbill, J. U. , Kothe, D. B. , and Zemach, C. , 1992, “ A Continuum Method for Modeling Surface Tension,” J. Comput. Phys., 100(2), pp. 335–354. [CrossRef]
Puckett, E. G. , Almgren, A. S. , Bell, J. B. , Marcus, D. L. , and Rider, W. J. , 1997, “ A High-Order Projection Method for Tracking Fluid Interfaces in Variable Density Incompressible Flows,” J. Comput. Phys., 130(2), pp. 269–282. [CrossRef]
Center for Applied Science Computing, 2006, “ Hypre 2.0.0 User Manual,” Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA.
Leonard, B. P. , 1979, “ A Stable and Accurate Convective Modelling Procedure Based on Quadratic Upstream Interpolation,” Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., 19(1), pp. 59–98. [CrossRef]
Raj, R. , Kunkelmann, C. , Stephan, P. , Plawsky, J. , and Kim, J. , 2012, “ Contact Line Behavior for a Highly Wetting Fluid Under Superheated Conditions,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 55(9–10), pp. 2664–2675. [CrossRef]
Siegel, R. , and Keshock, E. G. , 1964, “ Effects of Reduced Gravity on Nucleate Boiling Bubble Dynamics in Saturated Water,” AIChE J., 10(4), pp. 509–517. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of the computational domain

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

A two-phase computational cell

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Microlayer behavior during bubble lifecycle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Microlayer geometry during the bubble-growth

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Schematic of a bubble and liquid region around it during nucleate boiling and a close-up view of the three-phase contact line

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Variation of bubble diameter with time for (a) ψ = 38 deg and ΔTsup = 6.2 K and (b) ψ = 50 deg, and ΔTsup = 8.5 K

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Effect of superheat on (a) bubble growth rate up to the instant of departure and (b) bubble morphology at the instant of departure for the contact angle of 38 deg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Comparison of growth rate of bubbles at different superheats of (a) 4 K, (b) 8.5 K, and (c) 12.5 K with the power law fit curves: (a) Dt0.3989, (b) Dt0.401, and (c) Dt0.405

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Variation of microlayer thickness along the surface (a) at different values of superheat after 0.01 s of bubble initiation and (b) for the superheat value of ΔTsup = 6.2 K at different instants of time for ψ = 38 deg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

(a) Interface profile during the growth of a bubble at different instants of time and (b) variation of base-radius with time for ψ = 50 deg and ΔTsup = 8.5 K

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

(a) Variation of microlayer-thickness with time at different radial locations and (b) variation of mass-flux through the microlayer and thickness of the microlayer at t = 0.032 s for ψ = 50 deg and ΔTsup = 8.5 K

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Comparison of Wall heat-flux to the liquid side at different degrees of superheat for ψ = 38 deg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Variation of bubble equivalent diameter with time for (a) ΔTsub = 1.5 K and ΔTsup = 7.0 K and (b) ΔTsub = 4.0 K and ΔTsup = 6.5 K for ψ = 54 deg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Profile of a bubble after the instant of departure from the surface in (a) saturated liquid condition, (b) subcooled condition of ΔTsub = 1.5 K, and (c) subcooled condition of ΔTsub = 3.0 K for ψ = 50 deg and ΔTsup = 8.5 K

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Comparison of (a) diameter and (b) vertical velocity of bubble among saturated liquid condition and subcooled conditions of ΔTsub = 1.5 K and ΔTsub = 3.0 K

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Variation of bubble diameter with time for (a) ψ = 38 deg and Jasup = 0.0116 and (b) ψ = 50 deg and Jasup = 0.0159

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Effect of superheat on (a) bubble growth rate up to the instant of departure and (b) bubble morphology at the instant of departure for the contact angle of 38 deg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Comparison of growth rate of bubbles at (a) Jasup = 0.0075 (b) Jasup = 0.0159, and (c) Jasup = 0.0233 with the power-law fit curves: (a) D*t*0.3989, (b) D*t*0.401, and (c) D*t*0.405

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Variation of microlayer thickness along the surface (a) for different values of Jasup at t/t0 = 0.627 and (b) for Jasup = 0.0116 at different instants of time for ψ = 38 deg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

(a) Interface profile during the growth of a bubble at different instants of time and (b) variation of base-radius with time for ψ = 50 deg and Jasup = 0.0159

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

Variation of bubble equivalent diameter with time for (a) Jasub = 0.0028 and Jasup = 0.0131 and (b) Jasub = 0.0075 and Jasup = 0.0121 for ψ = 54 deg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

Profile of a bubble after the instant of departure from the surface in (a) saturated liquid condition, (b) subcooled condition of Jasub = 0.0028, and (c) subcooled condition of Jasub = 0.0056 for ψ = 50 deg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 23

Comparison of (a) diameter and (b) vertical velocity of bubble between saturated liquid condition and subcooled conditions of Jasub = 0.0028 and Jasub = 0.0056

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 24

Variation of transient Re with time

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In