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Research Papers: Evaporation, Boiling, and Condensation

Nonisothermal Evaporation of Layers of Aqueous Salt Solutions

[+] Author and Article Information
S. Y. Misyura

Novosibirsk State University,
2 Pirogova Street,
Novosibisk 630090, Russia;
Institute of Thermophysics Siberian Branch,
Russian Academy of Sciences,
Lavrentiev Avenue 1,
Novosibirsk 630090, Russia

V. S. Morozov

Institute of Thermophysics Siberian Branch,
Russian Academy of Sciences,
Lavrentiev Avenue 1,
Novosibirsk 630090, Russia

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received September 5, 2017; final manuscript received August 23, 2018; published online October 17, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Gennady Ziskind.

J. Heat Transfer 141(1), 011501 (Oct 17, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: HT-17-1525; doi: 10.1115/1.4041323 History: Received September 05, 2017; Revised August 23, 2018

Evaporation of layers of aqueous solutions of salts (LiBr, CaCl2, NaCl, MgCl2, BaCl2, and CsCl) is studied experimentally. Experimental data are compared with evaporation of the water layer. The solution is placed on a horizontal surface of a cylindrical heating section. Experiments on surface crystallization of salts are carried out. For aqueous solutions of salts LiBr, LiCl, and CaCl2, there is an extremum for the heat transfer coefficient αl. For water and for solutions of salts NaCl and CsCl, the extremum is absent. The first factor is a decreasing function of time, and the second factor is an increasing function of time. For the water layer, both factors continuously increase with time, and the maximum evaporation rate corresponds to the final stage of evaporation. The heat balance for interface layer is made up. The role of the free gas convection in the heat balance strongly depends on the salt concentration and varies with the rise of evaporation time. For low salt concentrations the influence of free convection in the gas phase on heat transfer in the liquid phase can be neglected; however, for high concentrations this effect is comparable with other factors. The curves for the rate of crystallization have been built. More than two time differences between the experiment and the calculation are associated with the kinetics of dendritic structures.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

The scheme of experimental setup: 1—electronic balance; 2—heater; 3—metal working section; 4—thermocouple; 5—liquid; 6—thermal imager

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Fig. 2

Evaporation rate j (kg/s) of aqueous salt solutions (initial salt concentration C01 = 10%; Tw = 80 °C): 1—LiBr; 2—LiCl; 3—CaCl2; 4—NaCl; 5—CsCl; 6—BaCl2; 7—MgCl2; 8–H20; crystallization point for 9–15: 9—LiBr; 10—LiCl; 11—CaCl2; 12—NaCl; 13—CsCl; 14—BaCl2; 15—MgCl2; 16—H20 (time when the surface area of the liquid begins to decrease rapidly); I is the interval of measurement errors

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Fig. 3

The heat transfer coefficient αl for the layer of different aqueous salt solutions (initial concentration of salt С01 = 10%; Tw = 80 °C); I is the interval of measurement errors

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Fig. 4

Feat fluxes q for aqueous solution of LiBr salt: heat flux of evaporation qe (curve 1), convection flux qс (curve 2), and radiation flux qr (curve 3) (C01 = 10%; Tw = 80 °C)

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Fig. 5

The heat flux q (1) and 1/ΔT (2) in time for water layer (Tw = 80 °C)

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Fig. 6

The heat flux q (1) and 1/ΔT (2) over time for the aqueous salt solution of LiBr (С01 = 10%, Tw = 80 °C)

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Fig. 7

The heat flux q (1) and 1/ΔT (2) over time for aqueous salt solution of LiCl (С01 = 10%, Tw = 80 °C)

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Fig. 8

The heat flux q (1) and 1/ΔT (2) over time for an aqueous solution of salt CaCl2 (С01 = 10%, Tw = 80 °C)

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Fig. 9

Nusselt number Nu over time (С01 = 10%; Tw = 80 °C): 1—LiBr; 2—CaCl2; 3—LiCl; 4—H2O

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Fig. 10

Temperature of free surface of the layer Ts (h0 = 3 mm, С01 = 10%; Tw = 80 °C)

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Fig. 11

Evaporation rate j1 (kg/(m2 s)) for aqueous solutions of salts (С01 = 10%; Tw = 80 °C): 1—LiBr; 2—LiCl; 3—CaCl2; 4—LiBr; 5—CaCl2; 6—LiCl (1–3, experiment; 4–6, simulation); I is the interval of measurement errors

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Fig. 12

Growth of a crystal hydrate of salt LiBr on the surface of aqueous salt solution: 1—crystal hydrate of LiBr·H2O; A—growth of dendrites on the edges of crystalline film

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Fig. 13

Crystal growth in the generalized coordinates k and t1 (C01 = 10%, Tw = 80 °C, Ts = 76 °C): 1—CaCl2; 2—LiCl; 3—LiBr; 4—curve is built on expression (9) for CaCl2·2H2O with k = 0.08 and ΔT = 0.5 °C; I is the interval of measurement errors

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