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Research Papers: Heat and Mass Transfer

Impacts of Dilution on Hydrogen Combustion Characteristics and NOx Emissions

[+] Author and Article Information
P. R. Resende

Department of Control and Automation,
Institute of Science and Technology,
São Paulo State University (UNESP),
São Paulo 18087-180, Brazil
e-mail: resende@sorocaba.unesp.br

Alexandre Afonso

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Transport Phenomena Research Centre (CEFT),
University of Porto,
Porto 4200-465, Portugal
e-mail: aafonso@fe.up.pt

Carlos Pinho

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Transport Phenomena Research Centre (CEFT),
University of Porto,
Porto 4200-465, Portugal
e-mail: ctp@fe.up.pt

Mohsen Ayoobi

Division of Engineering Technology,
College of Engineering,
Wayne State University,
Detroit, MI 48108
e-mail: mohsen.ayoobi@wayne.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received February 14, 2018; final manuscript received October 1, 2018; published online November 16, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Yuwen Zhang.

J. Heat Transfer 141(1), 012003 (Nov 16, 2018) (6 pages) Paper No: HT-18-1090; doi: 10.1115/1.4041623 History: Received February 14, 2018; Revised October 01, 2018

Combustion characteristics at small scales have been studied continuously due to the potential applications in portable power devices. It is known that heat release impacts at small scales result in different flame behavior as compared to conventional scales. The impacts of geometry, stoichiometry, flow rates, wall temperatures, etc., are widely studied in the literature. However, dilution impacts still need to be further studied due to its important role on controlling the flame behavior and subsequent pollutants emissions at these scales. In this work, premixed hydrogen/air combustion is simulated at an axis-symmetric microchannel (with diameter D = 0.8 mm and length L = 10 mm), where detailed chemical kinetics are implemented in simulations (32 species and 173 reactions). The heat transfer on the wall is considered by imposing a hyperbolic temperature profile on the wall, where the wall temperature increases from 300 K at the inlet to 1300 K at the outlet. With this setup, a range of equivalence ratios including a typical fuel-lean regime (ϕ = 0.7), stoichiometric regime (ϕ = 1.0), and two cases at an ultra-rich regime (ϕ = 2.0 and ϕ = 3.0) are investigated. For each equivalence ratio, excess dilution (using N2) is introduced to the mixture, and its impact is compared with other cases. With that, the impacts of dilution variations on the combustion characteristics of premixed hydrogen/air are investigated for different equivalence ratios. More specifically, several incidents such as flame dynamics, flame stabilization, extinctions, and NOx emissions are studied for the aforementioned operating conditions.

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References

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the computational domain and the temperature profile that is imposed on the upper wall

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Heat release rate (top-half of each contour plot) and elevated temperature (bottom-half of each contour plot) contours in selected domains: (a) Contour plots at fuel-lean (ϕ = 0.7) and stoichiometric (ϕ = 1.0) conditions, (b) contour plots at ultra fuel-rich conditions (ϕ = 2.0 and ϕ = 3.0), and (c) color scales corresponding to the contour plots of Figs. 2(a) and 2(b)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

NOx emissions, total integrated heat release rates and maximum gas temperatures against dilution amounts

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