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research-article

Two-Phase Pipe Quenching Correlations for Liquid Nitrogen and Liquid Hydrogen

[+] Author and Article Information
Sam Darr

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida
gatorsamd@ufl.edu

Dr. Jason Hartwig

Cryogenic and Fluid Systems Branch, NASA Glenn Research Center
Jason.w.hartwig@nasa.gov

Jun Dong

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida
jund@ufl.edu

Hao Wang

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida
fzarcher@ufl.edu

Alok Majumdar

Thermal and Combustion Analysis Branch, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center
alok.k.majumdar@nasa.gov

Andre LeClair

Thermal and Combustion Analysis Branch, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center
andre.c.leclair@nasa.gov

Prof. Jacob Chung

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida
jnchung@ufl.edu

1Corresponding author.

ASME doi:10.1115/1.4041830 History: Received January 30, 2018; Revised October 24, 2018

Abstract

Recently, two-phase cryogenic flow boiling data in liquid nitrogen (LN2) and liquid hydrogen (LH¬2) were compared to the most popular two-phase correlations, as well as correlations used in two of the most widely used commercially available thermal/fluid design codes in Hartwig et al. (2016a). Results uncovered that the correlations performed poorly, with predictions significantly higher than the data. Disparity is primarily due to the fact that most two-phase correlations are based on room temperature fluids, and for the heating configuration, not the quenching configuration. The penalty for such poor predictive tools is higher margin, safety factor, and cost. Before control algorithms for cryogenic transfer systems can be implemented, it is first required to develop a set of low-error, fundamental two-phase heat transfer correlations that match available cryogenic data. This paper presents the background for developing a new set of quenching/chilldown correlations for cryogenic pipe flow on thin, shorter lines, including the results of an exhaustive literature review of 61 sources. New correlations are presented which are based on the consolidated database of 79,915 quenching points for a 1.27 cm diameter line, covering a wide range of inlet subcooling, mass flux, pressure, equilibrium quality, flow direction, and even gravity level. Functional forms are presented for LN2 and LH2 chilldown correlations, including film, transition, and nucleate boiling, critical heat flux, and the Leidenfrost point.

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