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Research Papers: Two-Phase Flow and Heat Transfer

Two-Phase Pipe Quenching Correlations for Liquid Nitrogen and Liquid Hydrogen

[+] Author and Article Information
S. R. Darr, J. Dong, H. Wang, J. N. Chung

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611

J. W. Hartwig

Cryogenic and Fluid Systems Branch,
NASA Glenn Research Center,
Cleveland, OH 44135
e-mail: jason.w.hartwig@nasa.gov

A. K. Majumdar, A. C. LeClair

Thermal and Combustion Analysis Branch,
NASA Marshall Space Flight Center,
Huntsville, AL 35812

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received January 30, 2018; final manuscript received October 24, 2018; published online February 27, 2019. Editor: Portonovo S. Ayyaswamy. This work is in part a work of the U.S. Government. ASME disclaims all interest in the U.S. Government's contributions.

J. Heat Transfer 141(4), 042901 (Feb 27, 2019) (18 pages) Paper No: HT-18-1062; doi: 10.1115/1.4041830 History: Received January 30, 2018; Revised October 24, 2018

Recently, two-phase cryogenic flow boiling data in liquid nitrogen (LN2) and liquid hydrogen (LH2) were compared to the most popular two-phase correlations, as well as correlations used in two of the most widely used commercially available thermal/fluid design codes in Hartwig et al. (2016, “Assessment of Existing Two Phase Heat Transfer Coefficient and Critical Heat Flux on Cryogenic Flow Boiling Quenching Experiments,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 93, pp. 441–463). Results uncovered that the correlations performed poorly, with predictions significantly higher than the data. Disparity is primarily due to the fact that most two-phase correlations are based on room temperature fluids, and for the heating configuration, not the quenching configuration. The penalty for such poor predictive tools is higher margin, safety factor, and cost. Before control algorithms for cryogenic transfer systems can be implemented, it is first required to develop a set of low-error, fundamental two-phase heat transfer correlations that match available cryogenic data. This paper presents the background for developing a new set of quenching/chilldown correlations for cryogenic pipe flow on thin, shorter lines, including the results of an exhaustive literature review of 61 sources. New correlations are presented which are based on the consolidated database of 79,915 quenching points for a 1.27 cm diameter line, covering a wide range of inlet subcooling, mass flux, pressure, equilibrium quality, flow direction, and even gravity level. Functional forms are presented for LN2 and LH2 chilldown correlations, including film, transition, and nucleate boiling, critical heat flux, and the Leidenfrost point.

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Brentari, E. G. , Giarratano, P. J. , and Smith, R. V. , 1965, “ Boiling Heat Transfer for Oxygen, Nitrogen, Hydrogen, and Helium,” NBS Technical Note No. 317.
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Snapshot of the transient chilldown process

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Fig. 2

Chilldown (reverse boiling) curve for normally saturated water. Shown right to left is the quenching curve; shown left to right is the path taken for a heated tube test for water for which the majority of two-phase data in the literature is taken.

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Fig. 3

Parity plot comparing SINDA FLUINT correlations against vertical upflow LN2 chilldown data from Darr et al. [19]

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Fig. 4

Logic for organizing historical flow boiling studies

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Fig. 5

LH2 chilldown system schematic from Hartwig et al. [18]

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Fig. 6

LH2 chilldown HTC as a function of inner wall temperature at various flow rates and inlet liquid temperatures at SD20 for the pump leg. MED and HIGH correspond to the medium and high flow legs in Fig. 5.

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Fig. 7

LN2 chilldown system schematic from Refs. [19] and [20]

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Fig. 8

Effect of flow direction on LN2 chilldown

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Fig. 9

Low gravity flight test rig

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Fig. 10

Effect of gravity on LN2 chilldown at (a) low Reynolds number and (b) high Reynolds number. Flow direction for 1 g tests is indicated by 0 (horizontal), +90 deg (upward), or −90 deg (downward). Note that the low gravity portion of the parabolic flight was less than 25 s.

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Fig. 11

Parity plots for (a) LH2 vertical upward and (b) LN2 horizontal FB chilldown data

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Fig. 12

Parity plot for the consolidated cryogenic Leidenfrost database against the new correlation

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Fig. 13

Parity plots for CHF for (a) vertical upward LH2 and LN2 data and (b) vertical downward LN2 data

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Fig. 14

Parity plot for (a) vertical upward sight glass leg LH2 data, (b) horizontal LN2 data, and (c) low g LN2 data

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