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Research Papers: Micro/Nanoscale Heat Transfer

The Effect of the Liquid Layer Around the Spherical and Cylindrical Nanoparticles in Enhancing Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluids

[+] Author and Article Information
Hamid Loulijat

Department of Physics,
Faculty of Science Ben M'sik,
University Hassan II Casablanca,
Casablanca, 20000, Morocco
e-mail: hamidloulijat@gmail.com

Hicham Zerradi

Department of Physics,
Faculty of Science Ben M'sik,
University Hassan II Casablanca,
Casablanca, 20000, Morocco
e-mail: hzerradi@gmail.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received December 5, 2017; final manuscript received December 13, 2018; published online January 14, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Evelyn Wang.

J. Heat Transfer 141(3), 032401 (Jan 14, 2019) (10 pages) Paper No: HT-17-1735; doi: 10.1115/1.4042329 History: Received December 05, 2017; Revised December 13, 2018

In this work, the equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulation combined with the Green–Kubo method is employed to calculate the thermal conductivity and investigate the impact of the liquid layer around the solid nanoparticle (NP) in enhancing thermal conductivity of nanofluid (argon–copper), which contains the liquid argon as a base fluid surrounding the spherical or cylindrical NPs of copper. First, the thermal conductivity is calculated at temperatures 85, 85.5, 86, and 86.5 K and for different volume fractions ranging from 4.33% to 11.35%. Second, the number ΔN of argon atoms is counted in the liquid layer formed at the solid–liquid interface with the thickness of Δr = 0.3 nm around the NP. Finally, the number density n of argon atoms in this layer formed is calculated in all cases. Also, the results for spherical and cylindrical NPs are compared with one another. It is observed that the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid increased with the increasing volume fraction and the number ΔN. Likewise, the thermal conductivity of nanofluid containing spherical NPs is higher than that of nanofluid containing cylindrical NPs. Furthermore, the number density n of argon atoms near the surface of spherical NPs is higher than that of argon atoms attached in the curved surface of cylindrical NPs. As a result, the liquid layer around the solid NP has been considered one of the mechanisms responsible contributing to the thermal conductivity enhancement in nanofluids.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Initial configuration of nanofluid (Ar–Cu) in each of the cases

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Fig. 2

The spherical copper nanoparticles with different volumes ranging from 5.13 to 14.59 nm3

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Fig. 3

The cylindrical copper nanoparticles with different volumes ranging from 5.13 to 14.59 nm3 (R, H, and V are radius, height, and volume, respectively)

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Fig. 4

Radial distribution function of liquid argon compared to experimental result at temperature 85 K

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Fig. 5

Evolution of the internal energy during MD simulation: (a) the internal energy of pure liquid argon, (b) the internal energy of nanofluids with cylindrical NPs, and (c) the internal energy of nanofluids with spherical NPs

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Fig. 6

The thermal conductivity of nanofluid (Ar–Cu) as a function of the volume fraction at different temperatures 85, 85.5, 86, and 86.5 K

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Fig. 7

The number density as a function of distance from the spherical nanoparticle surface

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Fig. 8

The number density as a function of distance from the curved face of cylindrical nanoparticles

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Fig. 9

The variation of the thermal conductivity of nanofluid (Ar–Cu) with spherical nanoparticles and the number of argon atoms in the liquid layer formed with a thickness of Δr = 0.3 nm, as a function of the volume fraction

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Fig. 10

Liquid layer at the solid–liquid interface of argon atoms with a thickness of Δr = 0.3 nm around the spherical nanoparticles and its number of argon atoms for various volumes of spherical nanoparticles

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Fig. 11

The variation of thermal conductivity of nanofluid (Ar–Cu) with cylindrical nanoparticles and number of atoms in the liquid layer formed with a thickness of Δr = 0.3 nm, as a function of the volume fraction

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Fig. 12

The liquid layer at the solid–liquid interface of argon atoms with a thickness of Δr = 0.3 nm around the cylindrical nanoparticle and its number of argon atoms for various volumes of cylindrical nanoparticles

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Fig. 13

Comparison of the number density of the argon atoms attached in the curved face of cylindrical NPs and that of the argon atoms attached in circular faces of cylindrical NPs

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Fig. 14

Comparison of the number density of argon atoms attached in the spherical NP and that of argon atoms attached in the curved face of the cylindrical NP

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