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Research Papers: Heat and Mass Transfer

Experimental Characterization of Heat Transfer to Vertical Dense Granular Flows Across Wide Temperature Range

[+] Author and Article Information
Megan F. Watkins

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
North Carolina State University,
Raleigh, NC 27606
e-mail: mfwatki2@ncsu.edu

Richard D. Gould

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
North Carolina State University,
Raleigh, NC 27606
e-mail: gould@ncsu.edu

1Corresponding author.

2Present address: Brayton Energy, LLC, Hampton, NH 03842.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received June 29, 2018; final manuscript received December 15, 2018; published online January 14, 2019. Assoc. Editor: George S. Dulikravich.

J. Heat Transfer 141(3), 032001 (Jan 14, 2019) (10 pages) Paper No: HT-18-1420; doi: 10.1115/1.4042333 History: Received June 29, 2018; Revised December 15, 2018

Particle-based heat transfer fluids for concentrated solar power (CSP) tower applications offer a unique advantage over traditional fluids, as they have the potential to reach very high operating temperatures. Gravity-driven dense granular flows through cylindrical tubes demonstrate potential for CSP applications and are the focus of the present study. The heat transfer capabilities of such a flow system were experimentally studied using a bench-scale apparatus. The effect of the flow rate and other system parameters on the heat transfer to the flow was studied at low operating temperatures (<200 °C), using the convective heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number to quantify the behavior. For flows ranging from 0.015 to 0.09 m/s, the flow rate appeared to have negligible effect on the heat transfer. The effect of temperature on the flow's heat transfer capabilities was also studied, examining the flows at temperatures up to 1000 °C. As expected, the heat transfer coefficient increased with the increasing temperature due to enhanced thermal properties. Radiation did not appear to be a key contributor for the small particle diameters tested (approximately 300 μm in diameter) but may play a bigger role for larger particle diameters. The experimental results from all trials corroborate the observations of other researchers; namely, that particulate flows demonstrate inferior heat transfer as compared with a continuum flow due to an increased thermal resistance adjacent to the tube wall resulting from the discrete nature of the flow.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental apparatus. Dots along the tube wall represent wall-mounted thermocouples.

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Fig. 2

(a) Schematic and (b) image of the apparatus designed to accommodate the temperature measurement during tube expansion

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Fig. 3

Bulk effective thermal conductivities for 270-μm zirconia-silica particles as a function of temperature. Solid shapes denote experimentally measured values, and solid line denotes values calculated using the model reported by Van Antwerpen et al. [17].

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Fig. 4

Radial temperature profiles for 270-μm zirconia-silica particles in the 7.6-mm ID tube at (a) 0.015 m/s and (b) 0.047m/s. Solid shapes denote experimental data, dashed lines denote quadratic regression, and × denotes wall temperature.

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Fig. 5

Axial wall and mean temperature distributions for 270-μm zirconia-silica particles in the 7.6-mm ID tube at 0.015 m/s. Dashed lines denote linear regressions.

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Fig. 6

Heat transfer coefficients calculated for all low temperature system configurations as a function of mean flow velocity. Black symbols denote values measured at z = 0.64 m, and gray symbols denote values measured at z = 1.26 m.

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Fig. 7

Nusselt numbers calculated for the 270-μm zirconia-silica particles in the 7.6- and 10.8-mm ID tubes. Black symbols denote values measured at z = 0.64 m, and gray symbols denote values measured at z = 1.26 m.

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Fig. 8

Nusselt number plotted as a function of the inverse Graetz number for all low temperature system configurations. Black symbols denote values measured at z = 0.64 m, and gray symbols denote values measured at z = 1.26 m. Solid line denotes the plug flow continuum solution.

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Fig. 9

Radial temperature profiles for 270-μm zirconia-silica particles in the 10.8-mm ID tube for qwall″=46kW/m2 and U= 0.014m/s. Solid shapes denote experimental data, dashed lines denote quadratic regression, and × denotes wall temperature.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Axial wall and mean temperature distributions for 270-μm zirconia-silica particles in the 10.8-mm ID tube for qwall″=46kW/m2 and U= 0.014 m/s. Dashed lines denote linear regressions, and solid line denotes energy balance result.

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Fig. 11

Heat transfer coefficients calculated for all high temperature system configurations as a function of mean flow temperature. Black symbols denote values measured at z = 0.64 m, and gray symbols denote values measured at z = 1.26 m.

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