Research Papers: Evaporation, Boiling, and Condensation

A New Perspective on Heat Transfer Mechanisms and Sonic Limit in Pool Boiling

[+] Author and Article Information
Satish G. Kandlikar

Fellow ASME
Gleason Professor of Mechanical Engineering,
Rochester Institute of Technology,
Rochester, NY 14623
e-mail: sgkeme@rit.edu

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received August 10, 2018; final manuscript received January 28, 2019; published online March 27, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Debjyoti Banerjee.

J. Heat Transfer 141(5), 051501 (Mar 27, 2019) (12 pages) Paper No: HT-18-1523; doi: 10.1115/1.4042702 History: Received August 10, 2018; Revised January 28, 2019

Pool boiling is postulated as a single-phase heat transfer process with nucleating bubbles providing a liquid pumping mechanism over the heater surface. This results in three fluid streams at the heater surface—outgoing vapor and liquid streams, and an incoming liquid stream. Heat transfer during periodic replacement of the liquid in the influence region around a nucleating bubble is well described by transient conduction (TC) and microconvection (MiC) mechanisms. Beyond this region, free convection (FC) or macroconvection (MaC) contributes to heating of the liquid. A bubble growing on the heater surface derives its latent heat from the surrounding superheated liquid and from the microlayer providing a direct heat conduction path. Secondary evaporation occurs in the bubbles rising in the bulk after departure, and at the free surface. This secondary evaporation does not directly contribute to the heat transfer at the heater surface but provides a means of dissipating liquid superheat. A sonic limit-based model is then presented for estimating the theoretical upper limit for pool boiling heat transfer by considering the three fluid streams to approach their respective sonic velocities. Maximum heat transfer rates are also estimated using this model with two realistic velocities of 1 and 5 m/s for the individual streams and are found to be in general agreement with available experimental results. It is postulated that small bubbles departing at high velocity along with high liquid stream velocities are beneficial for heat transfer. Based on these concepts, future research directions for enhancing pool boiling heat transfer are presented.

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Fig. 1

Three heat transfer pathways around a nucleating bubble on the heater surface during saturated pool boiling: (1) TC and MiC in the influence region, (2) FC or MaC outside the influence region, and (3) primary evaporation pathways at two liquid–vapor interfaces—bubble interface prior to departure (EB) and microlayer interface (EM) including CL region. Secondary evaporation after bubble departure at two interfaces—at the bubble interface during its rise (ER) in the bulk liquid, and evaporation at the free surface (EF). (a) Heat transfer mechanisms and liquid/vapor flow structure and (b) liquid and vapor streams participating in heat transfer.

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Fig. 2

((i)–(ii)) Evolution of microlayer (ML) and bubble interface motion (IM) around a bubble during an ebullition cycle. Bubble nucleation begins in (i), interface recedes in ((i)–(iv)), advances in ((iv)–(vi)), and the cycle continues; microlayer (ML), dry spot (DS) and CL are also shown.

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Fig. 3

Detailed description of microlayer region under a bubble in pool boiling: adsorbed layer, transition region, microlayer region, intrinsic meniscus region, and MiC region (bubble interface)

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Fig. 4

Limiting values of evaporation and condensation heat fluxes for Argon estimated from MD simulation, adapted from Liang et al. [64]

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Fig. 5

Representative streams of (1) bulk liquid towards the heater, (2) superheated liquid away from the heater surface, and (3) vapor away from the heater surface

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Fig. 6

(a) Theoretical maximum heat flux under sonic limit for liquid and vapor streams for different return liquid mass flow fractions. (b) Heat transfer coefficient under sonic boiling limit for different wall superheats.

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Fig. 7

(a) CHF and (b) HTC limits for different f (outgoing to incoming liquid flow fraction) values and maximum phase velocities of 1 m/s

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Fig. 8

(a) CHF and (b) HTC limits for different f (outgoing to incoming liquid flow fraction) values and maximum phase velocities of 5 m/s



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