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Research Papers: Heat Transfer in Manufacturing

The Effect of Carrier Gas and Reactor Pressure on Gallium Nitride Growth in MOCVD Manufacturing Process

[+] Author and Article Information
Omar Jumaah

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey,
Piscataway, NJ 08854
e-mail: omar.jumaah@rutgers.edu

Yogesh Jaluria

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey,
Piscataway, NJ 08854
e-mail: jaluria@jove.rutgers.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received August 15, 2018; final manuscript received May 16, 2019; published online June 12, 2019. Editor: Portonovo S. Ayyaswamy.

J. Heat Transfer 141(8), 082101 (Jun 12, 2019) (12 pages) Paper No: HT-18-1529; doi: 10.1115/1.4043895 History: Received August 15, 2018; Revised May 16, 2019

Gallium nitride (GaN) is an attractive material for manufacturing light emitting diodes and other electronic devices due to its wide band-gap and superb optoelectronic performance. The quality of GaN thin film determines the reliability and durability of these devices. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) is a common technique used to fabricate high-quality GaN thin films. In this paper, GaN growth rate and uniformity in a vertical rotating disk MOCVD reactor are investigated on the basis of a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. GaN growth rate is investigated under the influence of reactor pressure, precursor concentration ratio, and composition of the carrier gas mixture. The numerical simulation shows that the carrier gas mixture and the reactor pressure have significant effects on growth rate and uniformity of GaN thin films. It is also found that an appropriate mixture of N2 and H2 may be employed as the carrier gas to improve the flow field characteristic in the reactor. This results in an improved crystal growth of GaN thin films.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of the vertical rotating susceptor reactor considered in this paper, adapted from Ref. [16]. (b) Comparison of predicted GaN growth rate by computational model with experimental results [18].

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Fig. 2

(a) Temperature and velocity profiles at initial conditions. (b) The contour plot of the thermal field and flow field.

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Fig. 3

Calculated flow field with (a) pure H2, (b) mixture of 50% H2 and 50% N2, and (c) pure N2 as the carrier gas at a reactor pressure of 140 Torr

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Fig. 4

Calculated thermal field with (a) pure H2, (b) mixture 50% H2 and 50% N2, and (c) pure N2 as the carrier gas at a reactor pressure of 140 Torr

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Fig. 5

GaN growth rate profiles versus a mixture of N2 and H2 as the carrier gas at a reactor pressure of 140 Torr

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Fig. 6

Flow and thermal fields with pure H2 and N2 as the carrier gas at a reactor pressure of 20 Torr

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Fig. 7

Flow and thermal fields with pure H2 and N2 as the carrier gas at a reactor pressure of 260 Torr

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Fig. 8

Flow and thermal fields with a gas mixture of 50% H2 and 50% N2 as the carrier gas at different values of the reactor pressure

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Fig. 9

Variation of (a) density and (b) inlet velocity for a mixture of H2 and N2 as the carrier gas at different values of the reactor pressure

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Fig. 10

Variation of deposition rate along the radial direction of the wafer at different values of the reactor pressure with pure H2 as the carrier gas

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Fig. 11

Variation of deposition rate along the radial direction of the wafer at different values of the reactor pressure with pure N2 as the carrier gas

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Fig. 12

Variation of the deposition rate along the radial direction of the wafer at different values of the reactor pressure with a gas mixture of 50% H2 and 50% N2 as the carrier gas

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Fig. 13

Variation of (a) GaN deposition rate and (b) standard deviation profiles with a mixture of N2 and H2 as the carrier gas at different values of the reactor pressure

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Fig. 14

Distribution of MMG mass fraction near the substrate surface for different carrier gas mixture at reference conditions

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Fig. 15

GaN growth rate and standard deviation profiles versus the flow rate of TMG with pure H2 as the carrier gas

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Fig. 16

GaN growth rate and standard deviation profiles versus the flow rate of TMG with pure N2 as the carrier gas

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Fig. 17

GaN growth rate and standard deviation profiles versus the flow rate of TMG with a mixture of 50% H2 and 50% N2 as the carrier gas

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