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Research Papers: Combustion and Reactive Flows

J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(10):101201-101201-10. doi:10.1115/1.4040348.

A high velocity jet fire can cause catastrophic failure due to flame impingement or radiation. The scenario becomes more complicated when multiple jet fires exist following ignition of release from pressure relief valves (PRV) as the thermal effect not only distorts the individual jet flame but also changes the flame height and temperature profile and such kind of high velocity jet flames have not been studied in the past. Therefore, prediction of the flame shape including the merging and interaction of multiple jet fires is essential in risk analysis. In this paper, fire interaction of two high velocity (>10 m/s) jet fires is investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. Different radiation models are analyzed and validated by experimental data from the literature. Based on the simulation result, the merging of high velocity jet fires is divided into three stages. An empirical equation considering the fire interaction for the average flame height with different release velocities and separation distance is developed. The flame height increases dramatically when the separation distance decreases resulting in a shortage of oxygen. So, part of the methane is reacted in a higher height, which explains the change in the merging flame height and temperature.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Conduction

J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(10):101301-101301-10. doi:10.1115/1.4039688.

Time-dependent participating volume-to-surface ratio, V(t)/A, is used to adjust the semi-infinite (SI) solid solutions to the radial systems. In cylinders and spheres, the present “radial” SI sold model extends the domain of the planar model from δ ≪ R to δ ≈ R (δ is transient penetration depth and R is radius). The corresponding increase in the time span is from 0 < Fo < 0.01 to 0 < Fo < 0.06). The erfc series solution for finite solids (FS), which converges rapidly at small values of time, is simplified, by truncating the first term of the solution. For cylinders and spheres, the resulting half-term approximations are far more precise than the planar SI solid solutions.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Forced Convection

J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(10):101701-101701-7. doi:10.1115/1.4040153.

A semi-analytical solution of the thermal entrance problem with constant wall temperature for channel flow of Maxwell type viscoelastic fluids and Newtonian fluids, both with pressure dependent viscosity, is derived. A Fourier–Gauss pseudo-spectral scheme is developed and used to solve the variable coefficient parabolic partial differential energy equation. The dependence of the Nusselt number and the bulk temperature on the pressure coefficient is investigated for the Newtonian case including viscous dissipation. These effects are found to be closely interactive. The effect of the Weissenberg number on the local Nusselt number is explored for the Maxwell fluid with pressure-dependent viscosity. Local Nusselt number decreases with increasing pressure coefficient for both fluids. The local Nusselt number Nu for Newtonian fluid with pressure-dependent viscosity is always greater than Nu related to the viscoelastic Maxwell fluid with pressure-dependent viscosity.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Heat and Mass Transfer

J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(10):102001-102001-6. doi:10.1115/1.4040148.

We recently showed theoretically that the infinite singularity of the thermal cloak designed by transformation thermodynamics could be eliminated by a new method—the path design of the heat flux without any approximation. In this paper, we present the experimental evidence of such a new strategy of thermal cloak, that is, a truly singularity-free thermal cloak. We fabricate such a transient thermal cloak device without using extreme material parameters. The experimental results show fully controlled, transient cloaking behavior, which are perfectly consistent with the theoretical derivations and simulated results. Since one can flexibly design the path of heat flux in the cloak, it has the large degree-of-freedom to construct thermal cloaks with the specific distributions of material parameters. The new method provides a new blue print for the transient thermal protection of a specific target.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(10):102002-102002-10. doi:10.1115/1.4040086.

The thermal management is an ever increasing challenge in advanced electronic devices. In this paper, simulation-based optimization is applied to improve the design of a plate-fin heat-sink in terms of operational cost and thermal performance. The proposed framework combines a conjugate heat transfer solver, a CAD engine and an adapted Sandwiching algorithm. A key feature is the use of novel immersed boundary (IB) techniques that allows for automated meshing which is perfectly suited for parametric design optimization.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(10):102003-102003-7. doi:10.1115/1.4040346.

The phase distribution and mechanical properties of annular flow have obvious, random characteristics because of the influence of turbulence. Thus, probability analysis is a suitable method for the study of annular flow. In the present work, the interchange rate and pressure gradient of fully developed annular flow are investigated in detail based on a probability model. The probability model tracks the atomization and deposition processes of a single particle to analyze the momentum and mass exchange between the gas and liquid phases. The interchange rate can be calculated by summing the generation or disappearance probability of droplets with different sizes. The pressure gradient can be obtained by solving the basic equations of the annular flow, which contains an improved relationship of interfacial shear stress. The predictions of the interchange rate and pressure gradient are well verified by comparison with experimental data available in the literature. Furthermore, the effects of the gas and liquid flow rates on the interchange rate and pressure gradient are discussed in detail.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(10):102004-102004-17. doi:10.1115/1.4040150.

The detailed Nusselt number distributions on leading and trailing endwalls together with the Fanning friction factors of a rotating two-pass parallelogram ribbed channel are simultaneously measured under forward and backward rotations. The tested Reynolds number, rotation number, density ratio, and buoyancy number are respectively in the ranges of 5000 < Re < 15,000, 0 < Ro < 0.3, 0.044<Δρ/ρ < 0.2, and 0 < Bu < 0.142. The area-averaged leading and trailing Nusselt numbers at forward rotations are 0.69–1.77 and 0.85–1.98 relative to the static-channel Nusselt number references, respectively. With backward rotations, the ratios of regionally averaged Nusselt numbers between rotating and static channels for leading and trailing endwalls fall in the respective range to 0.86–2 and 0.91–1.76. At both forward and backward rotations, all the f factors over leading endwall (LE) and trailing endwall (TE) are elevated from the static-channel levels and increased by increasing Ro. Channel averaged f/f0 ratios are respectively raised to 1.21–2.21 and 1.21–2.1 at forward and backward rotations. As the heat transfer enhancements (HTE) attributed to the presence of detached transverse ribs taking precedence of the accompanying f augmentations, all the thermal performance factors are above unity in the range of 1.26–2.94. Relative to the similar rotating two-pass parallelogram channel with attached 90 deg ribs, the detached ribs generate the higher degrees of heat transfer enhancements with the larger extents of f augmentations.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(10):102005-102005-8. doi:10.1115/1.4040258.

The aim of this investigation is to estimate the theory of generalized magneto-thermoelasticity to solve the problems of two-dimensional (2D) half-space under thermal shock, initial stress, and two temperatures. The governing equations are solved by using Lame's potentials method in the context of classical dynamical (CD) and Lord-Şhulman (LS) theories. The boundary conditions are as follows (i) the total normal stresses in the boundary equivalent to the initial stress; (ii) the shear stresses are vanished at the boundary; and (iii) the incidence boundary is thermal insulated. The reflection coefficients have been obtained for two incident p- and SV-waves. The results obtained for the incident waves calculated numerically by using appropriate metal and presented graphically. Comparisons have been made with the results obtained from the presence and absence of magnetic field and initial stress.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(10):102006-102006-7. doi:10.1115/1.4040151.

Two of the primary variables affecting junction temperature of semiconductor devices are the self-heating due to internal power dissipation within the device and the device's base (or ambient) temperature. For materials with temperature-independent material properties, the junction temperature is a linear function of these two variables, which allows for simple “scaling” of the junction temperature for arbitrary dissipation and/or base temperatures. In materials with temperature-dependent material properties, however, the relationship between junction temperature and either variable is nonlinear. The scaling law between junction temperature and dissipated power and base temperature for materials with temperature-dependent material properties are developed in this work. This scaling law allows for fast computation of junction temperature for any values of power dissipation and/or base temperature given the junction temperature for one specific instance of power dissipation and base temperature and hence may find applicability in fast electrothermal solvers.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(10):102007-102007-10. doi:10.1115/1.4040260.

Experimental investigation on rotation and turning vane effects on heat transfer was performed in a two-pass rectangular internal cooling channel. The channel has an aspect ratio of AR = 2:1 and a 180 deg tip-turn, which is a scaled up model of a typical internal cooling passage of gas turbine airfoils. The leading surface (LS) and trailing surface (TS) are roughened with 45 deg angled parallel ribs (staggered P/e = 8, e/Dh = 0.1). Tests were performed in a pressurized vessel (570 kPa) where higher rotation numbers (Ro) can be achieved with a maximum Ro = 0.42. Five Reynolds numbers (Re) were examined (Re = 10,000–40,000). At each Reynolds number, five rotational speeds ( = 0–400 rpm) were considered. Results showed that rotation effects are stronger in the tip regions as compared to other surfaces. Heat transfer enhancement up to four times was observed on the tip wall at the highest rotation number. However, heat transfer enhancement is reduced to about 1.5 times with the presence of a tip turning vane at the highest rotation number. Generally, the tip turning vane reduces the effects of rotation, especially in the turn portion.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(10):102008-102008-8. doi:10.1115/1.4039994.

This paper addresses nonlinear mixed convection flow due to Riga plate with double stratification. Heat transfer analysis is reported for heat generation/absorption and nonlinear thermal radiation. Physical problem is mathematically modeled and nonlinear system of partial differential equations is achieved. Transformations are then utilized to obtain nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations. Homotopic technique is utilized for the solution procedure. Graphical descriptions for velocity, temperature, and concentration distributions are captured and argued for several set of physical variables. Features of skin friction and Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are also illustrated. Our computed results indicate that the attributes of radiation and temperature ratio variables enhance the temperature distribution. Moreover, the influence of buoyancy ratio and modified Hartmann number has revers effects on rate of heat transfer.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(10):102009-102009-13. doi:10.1115/1.4040259.

In this paper, an optimization procedure is presented by response surface method to optimize the temperature and velocity of drying air and thickness of the moist object inside the dryer. The optimization procedure is performed to determine the minimum drying time and energy consumption as responses. A two-dimensional (2D) numerical solution is accomplished to analyze coupled heat and mass transfer occurring during drying of an apple slice. The air flow and the moist object are solved conjugate, while the heat and mass transfer equations are solved coupled together using lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Beside this, a sensitivity analysis is executed to calculate the sensitivity of the responses (drying time and energy consumption) to the control factors. Results reveal that the real optimized parameters for the minimum drying time and energy consumption are temperature (T = 80 °C), velocity (V = 0.10404 m/s), and thickness ratio (TR = 0.1). The results of numerical solution are compared to the experimental results, presenting a reasonable agreement. This analysis could be useful in food drying.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Heat Transfer in Manufacturing

J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(10):102101-102101-7. doi:10.1115/1.4039990.

This paper addresses the problem of distributing uniformly the energy flux intercepted by a thermoplastic sheet surface during the infrared radiation. To do so, we discretized this problem and then formulated it as an integer linear programming problem, for which we applied two meta-heuristic algorithms namely the simulated annealing algorithm (SA) and harmony search algorithm (HSA), in order to minimize the corresponding objective function. The results produced by the numerical study we conducted on the performance of both algorithms are presented and discussed.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Melting and Solidification

J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(10):102301-102301-8. doi:10.1115/1.4040345.

A new lattice Boltzmann (LB) model to solve the phase change problem, which is based on the enthalpy-transforming model has been developed in this paper. The problems of two-region phase change, natural convection of air, and phase change by convection are solved to verify the present LB model. In two-region phase change, the results of the present LB model agree well with that of analytical solution. The benchmark solutions are applied to evaluate the present LB model in natural convection of air and phase change material (PCM) as well. The results show that the present LB model is able to simulate the temperature distribution and capture the location of solid–liquid interface in the cavity accurately. Moreover, the present LB model is effective in computing owing to the fact that no iterations are necessary during the simulations.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Micro/Nanoscale Heat Transfer

J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(10):102401-102401-10. doi:10.1115/1.4040142.

Spraying water droplets on air fin surfaces is often used to augment the performance of air-cooled Rankine power plant condensers and wet cooling tower heat exchangers for building air-conditioning systems. To get the best performance in such processes, the water droplets delivered to the surface should spread rapidly into an extensive, thin film and evaporate with no liquid leaving the surface due to recoil or splashing. This paper presents predictions of theoretical/computational modeling and results of experimental studies of droplet spreading on thin-layer, nanostructured, superhydrophilic surfaces that exhibit very high wicking rates (wickability) in the porous layer. Analysis of the experimental data in the model framework illuminates the key aspects of the physics of the droplet-spreading process and evaporation heat transfer. This analysis also predicts the dependence of droplet-spreading characteristics on the nanoporous surface morphology and other system parameters. The combined results of this investigation indicate specific key strategies for design and fabrication of surface coatings that will maximize the heat transfer performance for droplet evaporation on heat exchanger surfaces. The implications regarding wickability effects on pool boiling processes are also discussed.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(10):102402-102402-7. doi:10.1115/1.4040143.

Micro/nanostructured surfaces have been widely explored to enhance condensation heat transfer over the past decades. When there is no flooding, micro/nanostructures can enable dropwise condensation by reducing solid-droplet adhesion. However, micro/nanostructures have mixed effects on filmwise condensation because the structures can simultaneously thin the condensate film and increase the fluid–solid friction. Although oil infusion of structured surfaces has recently been shown to render filmwise condensation dropwise in many cases, challenges remain in the case of extremely low-surface-tension fluids. This work aims to provide a unified experimental platform and study the impact of mini/micro/nanostructures on condensation heat transfer of low-surface-tension fluids in a customized environmental chamber. We first investigate the effect of microstructures, hydrophobic coating, as well as oil infusion on the filmwise condensation of a low-surface-tension fluid, e.g., refrigerant, on microporous aluminum surfaces. And we show that for low-surface-tension condensates, microstructures, hydrophobic coating, or oil infusion do not play a considerable role in enhancing or deteriorating heat transfer. Next, we study how the addition of nanostructures affects the condensation performance of the refrigerant on copper mini-fin structures. It is found that nanostructures slightly deteriorate the condensation performance due to the dominance of solid–liquid friction, although the performance of these mini-fins with nanostructured surfaces is still better than that of the mini-pin-fins. These results provide guidelines of designing mini/micro/nanoscale surface structures for enhanced condensation applications.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(10):102403-102403-7. doi:10.1115/1.4040146.

The enhancements in thermal performance of mesh wick heat pipe (HP) using TiO2/H2O nanofluid (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 vol %) as working fluid for different (50, 100, and 150 W) power input were investigated. Results showed maximum 17.2% reduction in thermal resistance and maximum 13.4% enhancement in thermal efficiency of HP using 1.0 vol % nanofluid as compared to water. The wick surface of the HP was then coated with TiO2 nanoparticles by physical vapor deposition method. The experimental investigation had been also carried out on coated wick HP using water as working fluid. Results showed 12.1% reduction in thermal resistance and 11.9% enhancement in thermal efficiency of the HP as compared to uncoated wick HP using water. Temporal deteriorations in thermal performance during prolonged working (2, 4, and 6 months) of HP were also studied. Temporal deterioration in thermal performance of HP filled with nanofluid depends upon the deterioration in thermophysical properties of nanofluids. The deterioration is due to the agglomeration and sedimentation of nanoparticles with respect to the time. Comparative study shows that after a certain time of operation, thermal performance of HP with nanoparticle coated wick superseded that of the HP filled with nanofluid. Therefore, nanoparticle coating might be a good substitute for nanofluid to avoid the stability issues. The present paper provides incentives for further research to develop nanofluids that avoid the encountered sedimentation or agglomeration.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Natural and Mixed Convection

J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(10):102501-102501-12. doi:10.1115/1.4040140.

A computational study of natural convection from biheaters of finite thickness and finite conductivity placed on a finite thickness and a finite conductive bottom plate of a cavity is performed under constant heat input condition. Cavity is cooled by the sidewalls, while the top and backside of the bottom plate are insulated. Streamline, isotherms, and local heat flux distribution of the sidewalls are discussed. Base Grashof number is chosen as 2.5 × 106. Biheater maintains a nondimensional distance of 0.4 between them. The left heater is placed at a nondimensional distance of 0.2 from the left wall. Heater length ratio is varied from 0.4 to 1.7, while heater strength ratio is varied from 0.25 to 7.0. Optimum operating temperature condition is found from the analysis.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(10):102502-102502-12. doi:10.1115/1.4040412.

Natural convective heat transfer in a concentric and a highly eccentric, vertical, open ended, annular channel has been investigated numerically. The inner to outer diameter ratio was 0.61, and the height to hydraulic diameter ratio was 18:1. Three heating modes were considered, all having uniform heat flux applied to one or both of the two walls, while the unheated wall was kept adiabatic. The wall temperature distribution, mass flow rate, and midchannel Nusselt number for the case with both walls heated were found to be in excellent agreement with available experimental results. For the same heating conditions, the heat transfer rate in the concentric annular channel was found to be greater than that in the highly eccentric channel, while the mass flow rate was higher in the eccentric channel. A novel finding for the eccentric channel was that the location of maximum velocity was intermediate between the narrow and wide gaps. Another novel observation, which was attributed to radiation effects, was that the fluid temperature in the wide gap region was lower than that of an adiabatic wall. The paper contains additional observations that would be of interest to designers of systems containing annular channels.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(10):102503-102503-8. doi:10.1115/1.4039914.

The steady-periodic natural convection phenomenon inside a heated enclosure filled with disconnected, discrete solid blocks, and under horizontal, time-periodic heating is investigated numerically. This configuration is akin to several practical engineering applications, such as oven baking in food processing, heat treating of metal parts in materials processing, and storage and transportation of discrete solid goods in containerization. Because of the relative large size, and limited number of solid bodies placed inside the enclosure, the solid and fluid constituents are viewed separately and the process modeled using continuum balance equations for each with suitable compatibility conditions imposed at their interfaces. The periodic heating is driven by a sinusoidal in time hot-wall temperature, while maintaining the cold wall temperature constant, with top and bottom surfaces adiabatic. Results are presented in terms of hot and cold wall-averaged Nusselt numbers, time-varying energy capacity of the enclosure, and periodic isotherms and streamlines, for Ra varying from 103 to 107, Pr equal to 1, and 36 uniformly distributed, conducting and disconnected solid square blocks. The results explain why and how the effect of varying Ra on the convection process is significantly affected by the presence of the solid blocks. An analytical equation, valid for time-periodic heating, is proposed for anticipating the block interference effect with great accuracy, substantiating the distinct features of Nusselt versus Rayleigh observed when the blocks are present inside the enclosure.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Thermal Systems

J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(10):102801-102801-10. doi:10.1115/1.4040152.

Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators have several applications within the field of active flow control. Separation control, wake control, aircraft noise reduction, modification of velocity fluctuations, or boundary layer control are just some examples of their applications. They present several attractive features such as their simple construction, very low mass, fast response, low power consumption, and robustness. Besides their aerodynamic applications, these devices have also possible applications within the field of heat transfer, for example film cooling applications or ice formation prevention. However, due to the extremely high electric fields in the plasma region and consequent impossibility of applying classic intrusive techniques, there is a relative lack of information about DBDs thermal characteristics. In an attempt to overcome this scenario, this work describes the thermal behavior of DBD plasma actuators under different flow conditions. Infra-red thermography measurements were performed in order to obtain the temperature distribution of the dielectric layer and also of the exposed electrode. During this work, we analyzed DBD plasma actuators with different dielectric thicknesses and also with different dielectric materials, whose thermal behavior is reported for the first time. The results allowed to conclude that the temperature distribution is not influenced by the dielectric thickness, but it changes when the actuator operates under an external flow. We also verified that, although in quiescent conditions the exposed electrode temperature is higher than the plasma region temperature, the main heat energy dissipation occurs in the dielectric, more specifically in the plasma formation region.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Technical Brief

J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(10):104501-104501-6. doi:10.1115/1.4040358.

The accuracy of computational fluid dynamic (CFD)-based heat transfer predictions have been examined of relevance to liquid cooling of IC engines at high engine loads where some nucleate boiling occurs. Predictions based on (i) the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solution and (ii) large eddy simulation (LES) have been generated. The purpose of these simulations is to establish the role of turbulence modeling on the accuracy and efficiency of heat transfer predictions for engine-like thermal conditions where published experimental data are available. A multiphase mixture modeling approach, with a volume-of-fluid interface-capturing method, has been employed. To predict heat transfer in the boiling regime, the empirical boiling correlation of Rohsenow is used for both RANS and LES. The rate of vapor-mass generation at the wall surface is determined from the heat flux associated with the evaporation phase change. Predictions via CFD are compared with published experimental data showing that LES gives only slightly more accurate temperature predictions compared to RANS but at substantially higher computational cost.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(10):104502-104502-3. doi:10.1115/1.4040255.

This paper deals with the autoregression method to determine the logarithmic decrement and natural frequency of gas oscillations in a combustion chamber. The proposed approach to quantify the impact of combustion noise on the estimates of oscillation decrement is based on a linear model of the vibrating combustion phenomena. An application of the proposed approach for afterburner tests is presented as well.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(10):104503-104503-7. doi:10.1115/1.4039993.

There is a substantial and growing body of literature which solves Laplace's equation governing the velocity field for a linear-shear flow of liquid in the unwetted (Cassie) state over a superhydrophobic surface. Usually, no-slip and shear-free boundary conditions are applied at liquid–solid interfaces and liquid–gas ones (menisci), respectively. When the menisci are curved, the liquid is said to flow over a “bubble mattress.” We show that the dimensionless apparent hydrodynamic slip length available from studies of such surfaces is equivalent to (i) the dimensionless spreading resistance for a flat, isothermal heat source flanked by arc-shaped adiabatic boundaries and (ii) the dimensionless thermal contact resistance between symmetric mating surfaces with flat contacts flanked by arc-shaped adiabatic boundaries. This is important because real surfaces are rough rather than smooth. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this observation provides a significant source of new and explicit results on spreading and contact resistances. Significantly, the results presented accommodate arbitrary solid-to-solid contact fraction and arc geometry in the contact resistance problem for the first time. We also provide formulae for the case when each period window includes a finite number of no-slip (or isothermal) and shear free (or adiabatic) regions and extend them to the case when the latter are weakly curved. Finally, we discuss other areas of mathematical physics to which our results are directly relevant.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Discussion

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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