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Research Papers: Evaporation, Boiling, and Condensation

J. Heat Transfer. 2015;137(8):081501-081501-7. doi:10.1115/1.4030245.

The present research is an experimental study for the enhancement of boiling heat transfer using microporous coatings. Two types of coatings are investigated: one that is bonded using epoxy and the other by soldering. Effects on pool boiling performance were investigated, of different metal particle sizes of the epoxy-based coating, on R-123 refrigerants, and on water. All boiling tests were performed with 1 cm × 1 cm test heaters in the horizontal, upward-facing orientation in saturated conditions at atmospheric pressure and under increasing heat flux. The surface enhanced by the epoxy-based microporous coatings significantly augmented both nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficients and critical heat flux (CHF) of R-123 relative to those of a plain surface. However, for water, with the same microporous coating, boiling performance did not improve as much, and thermal resistance of the epoxy component limited the maximum heat flux that could be applied. Therefore, for water, to seek improved performance, the solder-based microporous coating was applied. This thermally conductive microporous coating, TCMC, greatly enhanced the boiling performance of water relative to the plain surface, increasing the heat transfer coefficient up to ∼5.6 times, and doubling the CHF.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Heat Transfer in Manufacturing

J. Heat Transfer. 2015;137(8):082101-082101-9. doi:10.1115/1.4029086.

The effects of entrainment accompanying mass, momentum, and energy transport from the keyhole wall on keyhole collapse during high-power-density laser or electron beam drilling are theoretically and systematically investigated in this study. High intensity beam drilling is widely used in components, packaging and manufacturing technologies, micro-electromechanical-systems (MEMS), rapid prototyping manufacturing, and keyhole welding. This study proposes a quasi-steady, one-dimensional transport model to predict supersonic and subsonic flow behavior of the two-phase, vapor–liquid dispersion in a keyhole and applies the Young–Laplace equation to calculate the keyhole shape. The results show that the keyhole collapse, representing decreased or vanished radius, is susceptible to mass ejection at the base and entrainment from the side wall. Deposition of a mixture of gas and droplets in the keyhole stabilizes deformation of the keyhole. Enhanced energy and decreased axial component of momentum associated with entrainment are also apt to keyhole collapse. The predicted results agree with axial variations of transport variables of a compressible flow through a divergent and convergent nozzle, and their exact analytical solutions in the absence of friction, energy absorption, and entrainment. An understanding of the effects of ejected and entrained mass in the keyhole on drilling efficiency is therefore provided.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2015;137(8):082102-082102-9. doi:10.1115/1.4029039.

This study theoretically investigates the effects of the entrainment accompanying mass, momentum, and energy transport on pore size during high power density laser and electron beam welding processes. The physics of macroporosity formation is not well understood, even though macroporosity often occurs and limits the widespread industrial application of keyhole mode welding. This work is an extension of a previous work dealing with collapses of keyholes induced by high intensity beam drilling. In order to determine the pore shape, this study, however, introduces the equations of state at the times when the keyhole is about to be enclosed and when the temperature drops to melting temperature. The gas pressure required at the time when keyhole collapses is determined by calculating the compressible flow of the two-phase, vapor–liquid dispersion in a vertical keyhole with varying cross sections, paying particular attention to the transition between annular and slug flows. It is found that the pore size increases as entrainment fluxes decrease in the lower and upper regions of the keyhole containing a supersonic mixture. The pore size also increases with decreasing total energy of entrainment and an increasing axial velocity component ratio between entrainment and mixture through the core region. With a subsonic mixture in the keyhole, the final pore size increases with entrainment fluxes in the lower and upper regions. This work provides an exploratory and systematical investigation of pore size induced by entrainment accompanied by mass, momentum, and energy transport during keyhole mode welding.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Micro/Nanoscale Heat Transfer

J. Heat Transfer. 2015;137(8):082401-082401-7. doi:10.1115/1.4030170.

Thermal transport across interfaces can play a critical role in nanosystems for thermal management and thermal energy conversion. Here, we show the dependence of the thermal boundary conductance (G) of the interface between a 70-nm Al transducer and a Si substrate on the size of a laser pump diameter (D) in the time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) experiments at room temperature. For D ≥ 30 μm, G approaches to a constant where diffusion dominates the heat transfer processes. When D decreases from 30 μm to 3.65 μm, G decreases from 240 to 170 MW/m2K due to the increasing nonlocal effects from nondiffusive heat transport. This finding is vital to our understanding of the thermal boundary conductance: it depends not only on inherent interfacial conditions but also on external heating conditions, which makes the accurate measurements and theoretical predictions of thermal transport across interfaces in micro/nanosystems more challenging.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Two-Phase Flow and Heat Transfer

J. Heat Transfer. 2015;137(8):082901-082901-9. doi:10.1115/1.4029270.

Thermosolutocapillary convection within a rectangular cavity with dynamic free surface is numerically investigated in the absence of gravitational effects. Both the temperature and solute concentration gradients are applied horizontally. The free surface deformation is captured by the level set method. Two cases of the ratio of thermal to solutal Marangoni number Rσ < −1 and Rσ = −1 are considered. For Rσ< −1, the free surface bulges out near the left wall and bulges in near the right wall; with the increase of Marangoni number, the free surface deformation decreases and with the increase of capillary number and aspect ratio, it increases. For Rσ= −1, the free surface bulges out near the left and right walls and bulges in at the central zone; with the increase of Marangoni number, the free surface deformation mode is changed and with the increase of capillary number and aspect ratio, the free surface deformation increases.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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