Newest Issue

Research Papers: Evaporation, Boiling, and Condensation

J. Heat Transfer. 2015;138(2):021501-021501-8. doi:10.1115/1.4031233.

Boiling and bubble dynamics were experimentally investigated in a Hele-Shaw flow cell using pure water at atmospheric pressure as the working fluid. The resulting vapor bubble shapes were recorded by means of a high-speed camera for several plate spacings and heating power levels. It was found that viscous fingering phenomena of vapor bubbles occurred only under very special boiling conditions and cell parameters. The evaporation front velocity was identified as a major parameter for the onset of viscous fingering. The observed basic viscous fingering dynamics was in reasonable agreement with theoretical analyses. In addition to that classical viscous large fingering, small-scale evaporation instability was observed leading to microscopic roughening of accelerating evaporation fronts. This instability might be explicitly related to evaporative heat and mass transfer effects across the fast-moving phase interface.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2015;138(2):021502-021502-12. doi:10.1115/1.4031234.

This paper presents a fundamental study of the flow dynamics and heat transfer induced by a slug flow under saturated flow boiling in a circular microchannel. Numerical simulations are carried out by utilizing the commercial CFD solver ansys fluent v. 14.5, with its built-in volume of fluid (VOF) method to advect the interface, which was improved here by implementing self-developed functions to model the phase change and the surface tension force. A continuous stream of bubbles is generated (by additional user-defined functions) by patching vapor bubbles at the channel upstream with a constant generation frequency. This modeling framework can capture the essential features of heat transfer in slug flows for a continuous stream of bubbles which are here investigated in detail, e.g., the mutual influence among the growing bubbles, the fluid mechanics in the liquid slug trapped between two consecutive bubbles, the effect of bubble acceleration on the thickness of the thin liquid film trapped against the channel wall and on other bubbles, and the transient growth of the heat transfer coefficient and then its periodic variation at the terminal steady-periodic regime, which is reached after the transit of a few bubble–liquid slug pairs. Furthermore, the results for a continuous stream of bubbles are found to be quite different than that of a single bubble, emphasizing the importance of modeling multiple bubbles to study this process. Finally, the outcomes of this analysis are utilized to advance a theoretical model for heat transfer in microchannel slug flow that best reproduces the present simulation data.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2015;138(2):021503-021503-8. doi:10.1115/1.4031303.

Pool film boiling was studied by visualized quenching experiments on stainless steel spheres in water at the atmospheric pressure. The surfaces of the spheres were coated to be superhydrophobic (SHB), having a static contact angle greater than 160 deg. Subcooled conditions were concerned parametrically with the subcooling degree being varied from 0 °C (saturated) to 70 °C. It was shown that film boiling is the overwhelming mode of heat transfer during the entire course of quenching as a result of the retention of stable vapor film surrounding the SHB spheres, even at very low wall superheat that normally corresponds to nucleate boiling. Pool boiling heat transfer is enhanced with increasing the subcooling degree, in agreement with the thinning trend of the vapor film thickness. The heat flux enhancement was found to be up to fivefold for the subcooling degree of 70 °C in comparison to the saturated case, at the wall superheat of 200 °C. A modified correlation in the ratio form was proposed to predict pool film boiling heat transfer from spheres as a function of the subcooling degree.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Forced Convection

J. Heat Transfer. 2015;138(2):021701-021701-8. doi:10.1115/1.4031109.

A comprehensive analysis to convection heat transfer of power-law fluids along the inclined nonuniformly heated plate with suction or injection is presented. The effects of power-law viscosity on temperature field are taken into account in highly coupled velocity and temperature fields. Analytical solutions are established by homotopy analysis method (HAM), and the effects of pertinent parameters (velocity power-law exponent, temperature power index, suction/injection parameter, and inclination angle) are analyzed. Some new interesting phenomena are found, for example, unlike classical boundary layer problem in which the skin friction monotonically increases (decreases) with suction increases (injection increases), but there exists a special region where the skin friction is not monotonic, which is strongly bound up with Prandtl number, which have never been reported before. The nonmonotony occurs in suction region for Prandtl number Npr < 1 and injection region for Npr > 1. Results also illustrate that the velocity profile decreases but the heat convection is enhanced obviously with increasing in temperature power exponent m (generalized Prandtl number Npr has similar effects), the decreases in inclination angle lead to the reduction in convection and heat transfer efficiency.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Two-Phase Flow and Heat Transfer

J. Heat Transfer. 2015;138(2):022901-022901-9. doi:10.1115/1.4031268.

Experimental single-phase, condensation, and evaporation (flow boiling) pressure drop data from the literature and our previous studies were collected to evaluate previous frictional pressure drop correlations for horizontal microfin tubes of different geometries. The modified Ravigururajan and Bergles correlation, by adopting the Churchill model to calculate the smooth-tube friction factor and by using the hydraulic diameter in the Reynolds number, can predict single-phase turbulent frictional pressure drop data relatively well. Eleven pressure drop correlations were evaluated by the collected database for condensation and evaporation. Correlations originally developed for condensation and evaporation in smooth tubes can be suitable for microfin tubes if the friction factors in the correlations were calculated by the Churchill model to include microfin effects. The three most accurate correlations were recommended for condensation and evaporation in microfin tubes. The Cavallini et al. correlation and the modified Friedel correlation can give good predictions for both condensation and evaporation. However, some inconsistencies were found, even for the recommended correlations.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Technical Brief

J. Heat Transfer. 2015;138(2):024501-024501-8. doi:10.1115/1.4031171.

This work presents a mathematical model for simulating the swirling flow in an outward convex corrugated tube with twisted-tape insert (CT). The synergistic effect on the flow, heat transfer, and friction loss behaviors between the surface-based and fluid-based enhancements is numerically investigated. Renormalized group (RNG) k-ε turbulence model applied in our paper is verified by comparing with experimental results investigated by Manglik and Bergles. Comparisons of the CT and smooth tube with twisted-tape insert (ST) plots are confirmed to investigate the performance differences between them. When comparing the performance of the CT against the ST, the maximum ratio of Nusselt number (Nuc/Nus), ratio of friction factor (f/fs), and overall heat transfer performance (η) values realized in the CT are 1.36, 1.53, and 1.15 times higher, respectively, than the maximum values for those same variables in the ST.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2015;138(2):024502-024502-8. doi:10.1115/1.4031252.

In this paper, a figure of merit for the cooling capacity (FOMq) of phase change materials (PCMs) is defined from the analytical solution of the two-phase Neumann–Stefan problem of melting of a semi-infinite material with a fixed temperature boundary condition (BC). This figure of merit is a function of the thermophysical properties of a PCM and is proportional to the heat transfer across the interface with the surrounding medium in this general case. Thus, it has important implications for design and optimization of PCMs for high heat-flux thermal management applications. FOMq of example low melting point metals are presented which exceed those in common nonmetallic PCMs over the same temperature range by over an order of magnitude.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2015;138(2):024503-024503-5. doi:10.1115/1.4031172.

Radiation would be more important in turbine heat transfer due to higher temperature and multicomposition gas conditions in the future. The main goal of the current study is analyzing the characteristics of conjugate heat transfer considering radiation heat transfer, multicomposition gas, either with or without TBC coated. Both experimental and numerical studies were carried out. By comparing the experimental and the numerical results, it was concluded that the implemented thermal conduction/convection/radiation simulation method is valid for the cases studied. The results have shown that higher percentage of steam in the gas composition leads to higher temperature (lower normalized temperature) on the plate. With the percentage of steam in the hot gas increasing per 7%, the normalized temperature on the plate decreases about 0.02. The heat insulation effect of TBC is more obvious when the radiation effects are strong.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In