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Research Papers: Bio-Heat and Mass Transfer

J. Heat Transfer 136, 101101 (2014) (12 pages);   Paper No: HT-13-1496;   doi:10.1115/1.4027864

The oscillatory rotational motion of the elephant pinna is considered a key mechanism in metabolic heat dissipation. Limited experimental investigations have revealed that the flapping of the elephant's pinna is responsible for surface heat transfer enhancement. The objective of the present experimental and computational work is to investigate the physics of the flow induced by the pinna's motion and its effects on the heat transfer. This was accomplished by designing, fabricating and testing two full-size laboratory models of elephant pinnae: one rigid and one flexible, both instrumented with small size thermocouples for time-dependent surface temperature measurements. A constant heat flux is applied to both sides of each model which is rotated about a fixed edge with a frequency of 2 rad/s in an infinite domain at ambient conditions. Of interest is the study of the impact of the flexural strength of the model's material on surface heat transfer. Additional computer simulations of the flow and thermal fields revealed a hooked-shape vortex tube around the free edges of the flapping pinna. This result is confirmed by the flow visualization with smoke particles. Both experimental and computational results exhibit local surface temperature profiles characterized by a transient unsteady periodic variation followed by a steady periodic phase. Flow visualization indicated significant interaction between the vortical structures shed off the edge and the flexible model's boundary layer. It has been found that the cooling of the flexible model is enhanced by 30%.

Research Papers: Conduction

J. Heat Transfer 136, 101301 (2014) (8 pages);   Paper No: HT-13-1438;   doi:10.1115/1.4027882

There are many applications for problems involving thermal conduction in two-dimensional (2D) cylindrical objects. Experiments involving thermal parameter estimation are a prime example, including cylindrical objects suddenly placed in hot or cold environments. In a parameter estimation application, the direct solution must be run iteratively in order to obtain convergence with the measured temperature history by changing the thermal parameters. For this reason, commercial conduction codes are often inconvenient to use. It is often practical to generate numerical solutions for such a test, but verification of custom-made numerical solutions is important in order to assure accuracy. The present work involves the generation of an exact solution using Green's functions where the principle of superposition is employed in combining a one-dimensional (1D) cylindrical case with a 1D Cartesian case to provide a temperature solution for a 2D cylindrical. Green's functions are employed in this solution in order to simplify the process, taking advantage of the modular nature of these superimposed components. The exact solutions involve infinite series of Bessel functions and trigonometric functions but these series sometimes converge using only a few terms. Eigenvalues must be determined using Bessel functions and trigonometric functions. The accuracy of the solutions generated using these series is extremely high, being verifiable to eight or ten significant digits. Two examples of the solutions are shown as part of this work for a family of thermal parameters. The first case involves a uniform initial condition and homogeneous convective boundary conditions on all of the surfaces of the cylinder. The second case involves a nonhomogeneous convective boundary condition on a part of one of the planar faces of the cylinder and homogeneous convective boundary conditions elsewhere with zero initial conditions.

J. Heat Transfer 136, 101302 (2014) (9 pages);   Paper No: HT-13-1376;   doi:10.1115/1.4027364

This paper deals with the solution of an inverse heat conduction problem, aiming at the identification of the interface thermal contact conductance, which can be directly associated to the quality of the adhesion between layers of multilayered composite materials. The inverse problem is solved within the Bayesian framework, with a Markov chain Monte Carlo method. A total variation prior is used for the spatially distributed contact conductance. The feasibility of the approach is evaluated with simulated temperature measurements for cases with contact failures of different sizes.

Research Papers: Evaporation, Boiling, and Condensation

J. Heat Transfer 136, 101501 (2014) (9 pages);   Paper No: HT-13-1346;   doi:10.1115/1.4027881

This study describes the effect of an electric field on nucleate boiling and critical heat flux (CHF) in pool boiling. A dielectric liquid of AE-3000 was used as the working fluid. A heating surface was polished to a surface roughness of 0.05 μm. A microsized electrode, in which slits were provided, was designed to generate a nonuniform electric field and produce electrohydrodynamic (EHD) effects with the application of high dc voltages. The obtained results confirmed CHF enhancement as the EHD effects increased CHF to 86.2 W/cm2 with a voltage of −3000 V, which was four times greater than pool boiling in the absence of the electrode. The usual traveling wave on the bubble interface, induced by the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability, was modified by adding the EHD effects. The traveling wave model exhibits the essential features of the phenomenon and shows good agreement with the experimental data.

J. Heat Transfer 136, 101502 (2014) (9 pages);   Paper No: HT-13-1510;   doi:10.1115/1.4027966

A study was conducted to experimentally characterize the pool boiling performance of hydrofluorocarbon HFC-245fa at pressures ranging from 0.15 MPa to 1.1 MPa (reduced pressure range: 0.04–0.31). Pool boiling experiments were conducted using horizontally oriented 1-cm2 heated surfaces to quantify the effects of pressure and a microporous-enhanced coating on heat transfer coefficients and critical heat flux (CHF) values. Results showed that the coating enhanced heat transfer coefficients and CHF by 430% and 50%, respectively. The boiling heat transfer performance of HFC-245fa was then compared with the boiling performance of HFC-134a and hydrofluoroolefin HFO-1234yf.

J. Heat Transfer 136, 101503 (2014) (12 pages);   Paper No: HT-14-1039;   doi:10.1115/1.4027942

Confined jet impingement with boiling offers unique and attractive performance characteristics for thermal management of high heat flux components. Two-phase operation of jet impingement has been shown to provide high heat transfer coefficients while maintaining a uniform temperature over a target surface. This can be achieved with minimal increases in pumping power compared to single-phase operation. To investigate further enhancements in heat transfer coefficients and increases in the maximum heat flux supported by two-phase jet impingement, an experimental study of surface enhancements is performed using the dielectric working fluid HFE-7100. The performance of a single, 3.75 mm-diameter jet orifice is compared across four distinct copper target surfaces of varying enhancement scales: a baseline smooth flat surface, a flat surface coated with a microporous layer, a surface with macroscale area enhancement (extended square pin fins), and a hybrid surface on which the pin fins are coated with the microporous layer. The heat transfer performance of each surface is compared in single- and two-phase operation at three volumetric flow rates (450 ml/min, 900 ml/min, and 1800 ml/min); area-averaged heat transfer parameters and pressure drop are reported. The mechanisms resulting in enhanced performance for the different surfaces are identified, with a special focus on the coated pin fins. This hybrid surface showed the best enhancement of all those tested, and resulted in an extension of critical heat flux (CHF) by a maximum of 2.42 times compared to the smooth flat surface at the lowest flow rate investigated; no increase in the overall pressure drop was measured.

Research Papers: Experimental Techniques

J. Heat Transfer 136, 101601 (2014) (7 pages);   Paper No: HT-13-1394;   doi:10.1115/1.4027978

This article develops low cost moiré deflectometry for two-dimensional temperature measurement in free boundary environment. Experimental setup uses a red monochrome light-emitting diode (LED) lamp with wavelength range of 625–635 nm as light source. In process, the light first runs through the convex lens and then propagates to the parabolic mirror with diameter of 406 mm and f/4.5 for generating the parallel light. The parallel light further propagates to test object and through two gratings both with pitch of 254 lpi which are printed by laser printer. Behind the two gratings, a CCD camera is applied to capture the image, the distorted fringes. Based on the moiré deflectometry theory, the two-dimensional temperature distribution in free boundary environment can be determined in terms of the captured fringe shift analysis. This work has successfully measured the two-dimensional temperature distribution in free boundary environment with heat source models of 40–95 °C vertical wall, 60 W light bulb, and burning candle flame. The measured temperature deviations between moiré deflectometry and thermocouple thermometer are all less than 5%.

Research Papers: Forced Convection

J. Heat Transfer 136, 101701 (2014) (8 pages);   Paper No: HT-13-1225;   doi:10.1115/1.4027855

Turbulent flow and heat transfer of air with variable properties in a set of regular polygonal ducts and circular tube have been numerically simulated. All the ducts have the same hydraulic diameter as their characteristic lengths in the Reynolds number. The flow is modeled as three-dimensional (3D) and fully elliptic by using the finite volume method and the standard k-ε turbulence model. The results showed that the relatively strong secondary flow could be observed with variable properties fluid. For the regular polygonal ducts, the local heat transfer coefficient along circumferential direction is not uniform; there is an appreciable reduction in the corner region and the smaller the angle of the corner region, the more appreciable deterioration the corner region causes. The use of hydraulic diameter for regular polygonal ducts leads to unacceptably large errors in turbulent heat transfer determined from the circular tube correlations. Based on the simulation results, a correction factor is proposed to predict turbulent heat transfer in regular polygonal ducts.

J. Heat Transfer 136, 101702 (2014) (10 pages);   Paper No: HT-13-1009;   doi:10.1115/1.4027908

This paper presents a large eddy simulation (LES) of flow and heat transfer in a tandem configuration of two square cylinders at moderate Reynolds number (Re=16,000). Compressible LES on a hybrid mesh is used to predict the flow structure and the heat transfer at the wall. The goals of this work are to analyze the flow and the heat transfer around a tandem arrangement of two inline square cylinders as well as to propose a LES approach that can be applied to convective heat transfer problems in industrial configurations. The meshing strategy allows to resolve the flow field until the viscous sublayer with y+ of the order unity. The wall adapting linear eddy model is chosen to model the subgrid turbulent viscosity. Aerodynamics results are validated versus experimental measurements performed on isolated cylinders and on tandem configurations. The main flow structures responsible for heat transfer are analyzed. Finally, heat transfer around both cylinders of the tandem is described.

Research Papers: Heat Exchangers

J. Heat Transfer 136, 101801 (2014) (10 pages);   Paper No: HT-13-1483;   doi:10.1115/1.4027911

Heat removal capacity, coolant pumping power requirement, and surface temperature nonuniformity are three major challenges facing single-phase flow microchannel compact heat exchangers. In this paper multi-objective optimization has been performed to increase heat removal capacity, and decrease pumping power and temperature nonuniformity in complex networks of microchannels. Three-dimensional (3D) four-floor configurations of counterflow branching networks of microchannels were optimized to increase heat removal capacity from surrounding silicon substrate (15 × 15 × 2 mm). Each floor has four different branching subnetworks with opposite flow direction with respect to the next one. Each branching subnetwork has four inlets and one outlet. Branching patterns of each of these subnetworks could be different from the others. Quasi-3D conjugate heat transfer analysis has been performed by developing a software package which uses quasi-1D thermofluid analysis and a 3D steady heat conduction analysis. These two solvers were coupled through their common boundaries representing surfaces of the cooling microchannels. Using quasi-3D conjugate analysis was found to require one order of magnitude less computing time than a fully 3D conjugate heat transfer analysis while offering comparable accuracy for these types of application. The analysis package is capable of generating 3D branching networks with random topologies. Multi-objective optimization using modeFRONTIER software was performed using response surface approximation and genetic algorithm. Diameters and branching pattern of each subnetwork and coolant flow direction on each floor were design variables of multi-objective optimization. Maximizing heat removal capacity, while minimizing coolant pumping power requirement and temperature nonuniformity on the hot surface, were three simultaneous objectives of the optimization. Pareto-optimal solutions demonstrate that thermal loads of up to 500 W/cm2 can be managed with four-floor microchannel cooling networks. A fully 3D thermofluid analysis was performed for one of the optimal designs to confirm the accuracy of results obtained by the quasi-3D simulation package used in this paper.

Research Papers: Micro/Nanoscale Heat Transfer

J. Heat Transfer 136, 102401 (2014) (5 pages);   Paper No: HT-13-1369;   doi:10.1115/1.4027910

We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the interface which is comprised of self-assembled monolayer (SAM) and water solvent to investigate heat transfer characteristics. In particular, local thermal boundary conductance (TBC), which is an inverse of so-called Kapitza resistance, at the SAM–solvent interface was evaluated by using the nonequilibrium MD (NEMD) technique in which the one-dimensional thermal energy flux was imposed across the interface. By using two kinds of SAM terminal with hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties, the local TBCs of these interfaces with water solvent were evaluated, and the result showed a critical difference due to an affinity between SAM and solvent. In order to elucidate the molecular-scale mechanism that makes this difference, microscopic components contributing to thermal energy flux across the interface of hydrophilic SAM and water were evaluated in detail, i.e., the total thermal energy flux is decomposed into the heat transfer modes such as the contribution of molecular transport and that of energy exchange by molecular interactions. These heat transfer modes were also compared with those in the bulk water.

Research Papers: Natural and Mixed Convection

J. Heat Transfer 136, 102501 (2014) (8 pages);   Paper No: HT-13-1338;   doi:10.1115/1.4027909

The natural convective boundary layer flow of a nanofluid over an isothermal horizontal plate is studied analytically. The model used for the nanofluid accounts for the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. The analysis shows that the velocity, temperature, and nanoparticle volume fraction profiles in the respective boundary layers depend not only on the Prandtl number (Pr) and Lewis number (Le) but also on three additional dimensionless parameters: the Brownian motion parameter Nb, the buoyancy ratio parameter Nr and the thermophoresis parameter Nt. The velocity, temperature, and nanoparticle volume fraction profiles for the nanofluid are found to have a weak dependence on the values of Nb, Nr, and Nt. The effect of the above-mentioned parameters on the local skin-friction coefficient and Nusselt number has been studied extensively. It has been observed that as Nr increases, the local skin-friction coefficient decreases whereas local Nusselt number remains almost constant. As Nb or Nt increases, the local skin-friction coefficient increases whereas the local Nusselt number decreases.

Technical Brief

J. Heat Transfer 136, 104501 (2014) (6 pages);   Paper No: HT-12-1230;   doi:10.1115/1.4024592

In this paper, the problem of steady two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stagnation-point flow and heat transfer of an incompressible viscous fluid over a stretching/shrinking sheet is investigated in the presence of velocity and thermal slips. With the help of similarity transformations, the governing Navier–Stokes and the energy equations are reduced to ordinary differential equations, which are then solved numerically using a shooting technique. Interesting solution behavior is observed for the similarity equations with multiple solution branches for certain parameter domain. Fluid velocity increases due to the increasing value of the velocity slip parameter resulting in a decrease in the temperature field. Temperature at a point increases with increase in the thermal slip parameter. The effects of the slips, stretching/shrinking, and the magnetic parameters on the skin friction or the wall shear stress, heat flux from the surface of the sheet, velocity, and temperature profiles are computed and discussed.

J. Heat Transfer 136, 104502 (2014) (5 pages);   Paper No: HT-13-1397;   doi:10.1115/1.4028000

The effect of fill volume on the heat transfer performance of a hybrid cooling fin thermosyphon, characterized by an airfoil cross-sectional shape and a slot-shaped cavity, is investigated. The performance was examined at three fill volumes, expressed as a percentage of the evaporator section: 0%, 60%, and 240%. These were chosen to represent three distinct regimes: unfilled, filled, and overfilled evaporator sections, respectively. The cross section of this copper–water thermosyphon has a NACA0010 shape with a chord length of 63.5 mm and an aspect ratio (ratio of the length of the evaporator section to the cavity width) of 1.109. The evaporator length comprises 8.3% of the total thermosyphon length. The air-cooled condenser section was placed in a uniform air flow in the test section of an open return wind tunnel. The rate of heat transfer, or performance, was measured as a function of fill volume and evaporator temperature. The heat transfer performance increased by 100–170% by adding 0.86 ml of working fluid (deionized water), i.e., when the fill volume increased from 0% to 60%, which illustrates the improvement of a cooling fin's heat transfer rate by converting it to a hybrid cooling fin thermosyphon. Of the fill volumes investigated, the thermosyphon achieves a maximum heat transfer rate and highest average surface temperature at the 60% fill volume. Overfilling the evaporator section at 240% fill results in a slight decrease in performance from the 60% fill volume. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of hybridizing a cooling fin to act both as a cooling fin and a thermosyphon.

J. Heat Transfer 136, 104503 (2014) (7 pages);   Paper No: HT-13-1474;   doi:10.1115/1.4027350

Steady state experiments are conducted in a low speed horizontal wind tunnel under mixed convection for five discrete heat sources (aluminum) of nonidentical sizes arranged at different positions on a substrate board (bakelite) to determine the optimal configuration. The optimal configuration is one for which the maximum temperature excess (difference between the maximum temperature among the heat sources of that configuration, and the ambient temperature) is the lowest among all the other possible configurations and is determined by a heuristic nondimensional geometric parameter λ. The maximum temperature excess is found to decrease with λ, signifying an increase in heat transfer coefficient. In view of this, the configuration with highest λ is deemed to be the optimal one. The effect of surface radiation on the heat transfer characteristic of heat sources is also studied by painting their surface with black, which reduces their temperature by as much as 12%. An empirical correlation is developed for the nondimensional maximum temperature excess (θ) in terms of λ, by taking into account the effect of surface radiation. The correlation when applied for highest λ of the configuration returns the minimum value of θ at the optimal condition, which is a key engineering quantity that is sought in problems of this class.

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