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PHOTOGALLERY

J. Heat Transfer. 2003;125(4):541-548. doi:10.1115/1.1590669.
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%Park, J. S., Kihm, K. D., and Allen, J. S., 2002, “Three-Dimensional Microfluidic Measurements Using Optical Sectioning By Confocal Microscopy: Flow Around a Moving Bubble in a Micro-Channel,” IMECE Paper No. 2002-32790.Killion, J. D., and Garimella, S., 2003, “Gravity-Driven Flow of Liquid Films and Droplets in Horizontal Tube Banks,” Int. J. Refrig., in press (accepted).Wong, B. T., Mengüç, M. P., Vallance, R. R., and Rao, A., 2003, “Modeling of Energy Transfer for Carbon Nanotube-Based Precision Machining,” Proceedings of the Annual Meeting American Physical Society (APS) March Meeting 2003, Austin, TX, March 3–7, 2003.Zhang, J., and Manglik, R. M., 2003, “Pool Boiling Heat Transfer in Aqueous Solutions of Cationic Surfactants,” Paper No. TED-AJ03-248.Beskok,  A., and Warburton,  T. C., 2001, “ An Unstructured H/P Finite Element Scheme for Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Moving Domains,” J. Comput. Phys., JCTPAH174, pp. 492–509.jctJCTPAH0021-9991

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2003;125(4):542. doi:10.1115/1.1617071.
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Abstract
Topics: Measurement
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2003;125(4):543. doi:10.1115/1.1617072.
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Abstract
Topics: Drops , Lithium
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2003;125(4):544. doi:10.1115/1.1617073.
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Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2003;125(4):545. doi:10.1115/1.1617074.
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Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2003;125(4):547. doi:10.1115/1.1617076.
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Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2003;125(4):548. doi:10.1115/1.1617077.
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Abstract
Topics: Heat , Mass transfer
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

2001 MAX JACOB MEMORIAL AWARD LECTURE

J. Heat Transfer. 2003;125(4):549-566. doi:10.1115/1.1566050.
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The nature and dynamics of surface contacts often govern heat transfer in multiphase systems. Physical scale, time scale, and intermolecular forces all affect basic mechanisms of transport between the multiphase medium and a submerged surface. Parameters in one or more of these domains can be the determining factor for transfer rate and efficiency, depending on the specific application. Research results for systems as diverse as fluidized particles and condensing liquids are examined to illustrate this significance. Specifically, it is shown that for heat transfer to/from surfaces submerged in bubbling fluidized beds, parameters in time domain are most important. In the case of condensation, it is shown that substantial enhancement of heat transfer coefficient can be obtained by controlling parameters in the domain of surface free energies.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

TECHNICAL PAPERS: Conduction Heat Transfer

J. Heat Transfer. 2003;125(4):567-574. doi:10.1115/1.1571080.

Usual heat transfer fluids with suspended ultra fine particles of nanometer size are named as nanofluids, which have opened a new dimension in heat transfer processes. The recent investigations confirm the potential of nanofluids in enhancing heat transfer required for present age technology. The present investigation goes detailed into investigating the increase of thermal conductivity with temperature for nano fluids with water as base fluid and particles of Al2 O3 or CuO as suspension material. A temperature oscillation technique is utilized for the measurement of thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity is calculated from it. The results indicate an increase of enhancement characteristics with temperature, which makes the nanofluids even more attractive for applications with high energy density than usual room temperature measurements reported earlier.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

TECHNICAL PAPERS: Forced Convection

J. Heat Transfer. 2003;125(4):575-586. doi:10.1115/1.1571093.

The work presented in this paper focuses on the effect of jet pulsation on the heat transfer and fluid dynamics characteristics of single and double jet impingement on a constant heat flux heated surface. Specifically, the influence of frequency, amplitude and in particular, of the phase difference of the two jets on the temperature distribution of the heated surface is examined. The simulations are conducted using a novel, remeshed Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) methodology that is based on particle discretization of the governing compressible Navier-Stokes equations. It was found that the strong aerodynamic and thermal interaction that exists between the gaseous jets and the impingement surface leads to non-linear system responses; with serious heat transfer implications. Dynamical systems analysis leads to the identification of intermittent periodic/chaotic behavior above a threshold value of the Reynolds number. As a result, a reduction in the maximum plate temperature in a window of periodic behavior was discovered.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2003;125(4):587-594. doi:10.1115/1.1576812.

Experiments have been conducted to study steady heat transfer between two blockages with holes and pressure drop across the blockages, for turbulent flow in a rectangular channel. Average heat transfer coefficient and local heat transfer distribution on one of the channel walls between two blockages, and overall pressure drop across the blockages were obtained, for nine different staggered arrays of holes in the blockages and Reynolds numbers of 10,000 and 30,000. For the hole configurations studied, the blockages enhanced heat transfer by 4.6 to 8.1 times, but significantly increased the pressure drop. Smaller holes in the blockages caused higher heat transfer enhancement, but larger increase of the pressure drop than larger holes. The heat transfer enhancement was lower in the higher Reynolds number cases. Because of the large pressure drop, the heat transfer per unit pumping power was lower with the blockages than without the blockages. The local heat transfer was lower nearer the upstream blockage, the highest near the downstream blockage, and also relatively high in regions of reattachment of the jets leaving the upstream holes. The local heat transfer distribution was strongly dependent on the configuration of the hole array in the blockages. A third upstream blockage lowered both the heat transfer and the pressure drop, and significantly changed the local heat transfer distribution.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2003;125(4):595-603. doi:10.1115/1.1571848.

Numerical investigations of the heat transfer from hot wires in near-wall measurements were carried out. Special attention was paid to the effect of the wall thickness, the flow conditions below the wall and the shear velocity connected to different wall materials. Compared with previous studies, an improved physical model taking into account the flow region below the wall in the computational domain was applied. The results obtained agree well with experimental data in the literature for walls consisting of both highly and poorly conducting materials. The investigation showed that the shear velocity Uτ has a significant influence on hot-wire measurements in the vicinity of a wall. Nevertheless, discernible effects of the wall thickness and the flow condition below the wall were found only in the case of a poorly conducting wall. In addition, the results also suggest a weak effect of the overheat ratio for a wire with an infinitely large aspect ratio.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2003;125(4):604-611. doi:10.1115/1.1571086.

A numerical study is performed to investigate thermal transport phenomena in circular Couette flow in a concentric annulus, in which an axially rotating inner cylinder and stationary outer cylinder are strongly heated under the same heat flux condition. The anisotropic t2t heat-transfer model together with the anisotropic k-ε turbulence model is employed to determine thermal eddy diffusivity. When the inner cylinder is at rest, the turbulent kinetic energy and temperature variance substantially diminish over the whole annular cross-section along the flow, resulting in laminarization, i.e., a deterioration in heat-transfer performance at the inner and outer cylinder walls. In contrast, a substantial reduction in the turbulent kinetic energy and temperature variance in the laminarizing flow is suppressed in the presence of inner core rotation. In other words, inner core rotation contributes to the suppression of laminarization in a strongly heated gas flow. These characteristics in thermal fluid flow with temperature-dependent thermal property are summarized in the form of dimensionless heat flux parameter versus inlet Reynolds number with the Taylor number, as the parameter.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

TECHNICAL PAPERS: Natural and Mixed Convection

J. Heat Transfer. 2003;125(4):612-623. doi:10.1115/1.1571846.

In a natural circular loop, the thermal convection demonstrates various spatial patterns and temporal instabilities. Problem consists in determining them with respects to thermal boundary conditions. To this end a multiple scales analysis is applied which resembles the inherent characteristic of the pattern formation in the Rayleigh-Bénard convection. A three-dimensional nonlinear model is proposed by incorporating the flow modes derived along the analysis. The differences of thermal boundary condition are reflected by a coefficient δ. For small δ, numerical solution to the model shows that only temporal instability exists and Lorenz chaos is possible, otherwise, for large values both spatial and temporal instabilities occur leading to cellular flow and intermittency chaos. The model predicted some additional phenomena opening for experimental observation. It seems significant that this study proposes an algorithm for the control of flow stability and distribution by varying the thermal boundary condition.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2003;125(4):624-634. doi:10.1115/1.1571847.

A finite-volume-based computational study of steady laminar natural convection (using Boussinesq approximation) within a differentially heated square cavity due to the presence of a single thin fin is presented. Attachment of highly conductive thin fins with lengths equal to 20, 35 and 50 percent of the side, positioned at 7 locations on the hot left wall were examined for Ra=104,105,106, and 107 and Pr=0.707 (total of 84 cases). Placing a fin on the hot left wall generally alters the clockwise rotating vortex that is established due to buoyancy-induced convection. Two competing mechanisms that are responsible for flow and thermal modifications are identified. One is due to the blockage effect of the fin, whereas the other is due to extra heating of the fluid that is accommodated by the fin. The degree of flow modification due to blockage is enhanced by increasing the length of the fin. Under certain conditions, smaller vortices are formed between the fin and the top insulated wall. Viewing the minimum value of the stream function field as a measure of the strength of flow modification, it is shown that for high Rayleigh numbers the flow field is enhanced regardless of the fin’s length and position. This suggests that the extra heating mechanism outweighs the blockage effect for high Rayleigh numbers. By introducing a fin, the heat transfer capacity on the anchoring wall is always degraded, however heat transfer on the cold wall without the fin can be promoted for high Rayleigh numbers and with the fins placed closer to the insulated walls. A correlation among the mean Nu, Ra, fin’s length and its position is proposed.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

TECHNICAL PAPERS: Radiative Heat Transfer

J. Heat Transfer. 2003;125(4):635-643. doi:10.1115/1.1565081.

This paper presents a method of modeling the radiative energy transfer that takes place during the transient of joining two concentric, semitransparent glass cylinders. Specifically, we predict the two-dimensional transient temperature and heat flux distributions to a ramp input which advances the cylinders into a furnace at high temperature. In this paper, we discretize the fully conservative form of two-dimensional Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) in both curvilinear and cylindrical coordinate systems so that it can be used for arbitrary axisymmetric cylindrical geometry. We compute the transient temperature field using both the Discrete Ordinate Method (DOM) and the widely used Rosseland’s approximation. The comparison shows that Rosseland’s approximation fails badly near the gap inside the glass media and when the radiative heat flux is dominant at short wavelengths where the spectral absorption coefficient is relatively small. Most prior studies of optical fiber drawing processes at the melting point (generally used Myers’ two-step band model at room temperature) neglect the effects of the spectral absorption coefficient at short wavelengths (λ<3 μm). In this study, we suggest a modified band model that includes the glass absorption coefficient in the short-wavelength band. Our results show that although the spectral absorption coefficient at short wavelengths is relatively small, its effects on the temperature and heat flux are considerable.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

TECHNICAL PAPERS: Evaporation, Boiling, and Condensation

J. Heat Transfer. 2003;125(4):644-652. doi:10.1115/1.1560145.

A two-dimensional model is presented to predict the overall heat transfer capability for a sintered wick structure. The model considers the absence of bulk fluid at the top surface of the wick, heat conduction resistance through the wick, capillary limitation, and the onset of nucleate boiling. The numerical results show that thin film evaporation occurring only at the top surface of a wick plays an important role in the enhancement of evaporating heat transfer and depends on the thin film evaporation, the particle size, the porosity, and the wick structure thickness. By decreasing the average particle radius, the evaporation heat transfer coefficient can be enhanced. Additionally, there exists an optimum characteristic thickness for maximum heat removal. The maximum superheat allowable for thin film evaporation at the top surface of a wick is presented to be a function of the particle radius, wick porosity, wick structure thickness, and effective thermal conductivity. In order to verify the theoretical analysis, an experimental system was established, and a comparison with the theoretical prediction conducted. Results of the investigation will assist in optimizing the heat transfer performance of sintered porous media in heat pipes and better understanding of thin film evaporation.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2003;125(4):653-660. doi:10.1115/1.1560153.

Experimental results are presented that show the effect of fin geometry on condensation of downward flowing zeotropic refrigerant mixture R407C in a staggered bundle of horizontal finned tubes. Two types of conventional low-fin tubes and three types of three-dimensional-fin tubes were tested. The refrigerant mass velocity ranged from 4 to 23 kg/m2  s and the condensation temperature difference from 3 to 12 K. The measured condensation heat transfer coefficient was lower than the previous results for R134a, with the difference being more significant for smaller mass velocity. The effect of fin geometry on the condensation heat transfer coefficient was less significant for R407C than for R134a. The effect of condensate inundation was more significant for the three-dimensional-fin tubes than for the low-fin tubes. By using the dimensionless heat transfer correlation for the condensate film that was based on the experimental data for R134a, a superficial vapor-phase heat transfer coefficient was obtained for condensation of R407C. The vapor-phase heat transfer coefficient showed characteristics similar to the vapor-phase mass transfer coefficient that was obtained in the previous study for R123/R134a.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

TECHNICAL PAPERS: Melting and Solidification

J. Heat Transfer. 2003;125(4):661-668. doi:10.1115/1.1576811.

A fine metallic wire electrode is heated from below (by an electric discharge) causing melting and roll-up into a ball by surface tension. After the heating is terminated, a solidification front progresses through the melt until a solid ball is formed and cooled to ambient conditions. In this paper we numerically simulate the heating, melt motion and roll up and subsequent cooling and solidification. This is a three-phase problem (solid, liquid, and the ambient medium—plasma/gas) with two simultaneously moving phase interfaces, the outer one tracked by orthogonal grid generation conformal with the evolving boundary surface at each time interval. A novel observation in this study is that the wire end first drops until the melt radius equals the wire radius and then it begins to roll up into a ball consuming the wire. In other words, the inter-electrode gap first reduces and subsequently increases during an electronic flame off (EFO) discharge heating/phase-change process.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

TECHNICAL PAPERS: Combustion and Gas Turbine Heat Transfer

J. Heat Transfer. 2003;125(4):669-677. doi:10.1115/1.1571849.

Detailed heat transfer coefficient distributions on a squealer tip of a gas turbine blade were measured using a hue detection based transient liquid crystals technique. The heat transfer coefficients on the shroud and near tip regions of the pressure and suction sides of a blade were also measured. Tests were performed on a five-bladed linear cascade with a blow-down facility. The blade was a two-dimensional model of a first stage gas turbine rotor blade with a profile of a GE-E3 aircraft gas turbine engine rotor blade. The Reynolds number based on the cascade exit velocity and axial chord length of a blade was 1.1×106 and the total turning angle of the blade was 97.7 deg. The overall pressure ratio was 1.2 and the inlet and exit Mach number were 0.25 and 0.59, respectively. The turbulence intensity level at the cascade inlet was 9.7 percent. The heat transfer measurements were taken at the three different tip gap clearances of 1.0 percent, 1.5 percent, and 2.5 percent of blade span. Results showed that the overall heat transfer coefficients on the squealer tip were higher than that on the shroud surface and the near tip regions of the pressure and suction sides. Results also showed that the heat transfer coefficients on the squealer tip and its shroud were lower than that on the plane tip and shroud. However, the reductions of heat transfer coefficients near the tip regions of the pressure and suction sides were not remarkable.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2003;125(4):678-686. doi:10.1115/1.1589502.

Spectral radiation intensities leaving diametric and chord-like paths for six non-sooting flames were measured using an infrared array spectrometer. The spectral radiation intensities were also computed using the mean property approach and a time and space series simulation approach. Turbulence/radiation interactions (TRI) in these flames were investigated by comparing the two sets of computations to the experimental data. The effects of TRI are significant for regions away from the flame axis. The new data and findings are of value in the evaluation of radiation models, which are increasingly used in turbulent combustion calculations.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

TECHNICAL PAPERS: Bubbles, Particles, and Droplets

J. Heat Transfer. 2003;125(4):687-692. doi:10.1115/1.1571844.

Nucleation temperatures on micro line heaters were measured precisely by obtaining the I-R (current-resistance) characteristic curves of the heaters. The bubble nucleation temperature on the heater with 3 μm width is higher than the superheat limit, while the temperature on the heater with broader width of 5 μm is considerably less than the superheat limit. The nucleation temperatures were also estimated by using the molecular cluster model for bubble nucleation on the cavity free surface with effect of contact angle. The bubble nucleation process was observed by microscope/35 mm camera unit with a flash light of μs duration.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

TECHNICAL PAPERS: Porous Media

J. Heat Transfer. 2003;125(4):693-702. doi:10.1115/1.1578504.

The upper and lower bounds of the effective thermal conductivity of packed beds of rough spheres are evaluated using the theoretical approach of the elementary cell for two-phase systems. The solid mechanics and thermal problems are solved and the effects of roughness and packed bed structures are also examined. The numerical solution of the thermal conduction problem through the periodic regular arrangement of steel spheroids in air is determined using the Finite Element Method. The numerical results are compared with those obtained from an experimental apparatus designed and built for this purpose.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2003;125(4):703-715. doi:10.1115/1.1589501.

Numerical solutions for thermosolutal convection in a vertical concentric cavity partly filled with a porous medium are presented in this paper. The cavity is subject to pre-selected horizontal temperature and concentration gradients. The general Brinkman-Forchheimer-extended Darcy model is adopted to formulate the fluid flow through the porous matrix in the cavity. The effects of the controlling parameters on the flow patterns and heat and mass transfer behavior are thoroughly documented. Different flow structures are produced in the course of the computations, which respond to the geometric parameters, fluid nature, thermofluid dynamic parameters and porous matrix characteristics. The collection of numerical results elucidates that the double diffusion zone varies and, besides it is strongly dependent on the coupling between the Prandtl and Lewis numbers. Moreover, the variations of the Sherwood number show the presence of an extended range of double diffusion phenomena within the conditions pertinent to Darcian flow at Da=10−5. It has been discovered that a partly porous annular cavity is more efficient than a fully porous annular cavity. This aspect may have a beneficial impact on engineering applications in the areas of filtration and thermal insulation.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

TECHNICAL PAPERS: Heat and Mass Transfer

J. Heat Transfer. 2003;125(4):716-723. doi:10.1115/1.1576813.

The problem of unsteady mass transfer from a sphere that impulsively moves from rest to a finite velocity in a non-uniform concentration distribution is studied. A range of low Reynolds numbers (Re<1) and moderate Peclet numbers (Pe ranges from 5.6 to 300) is investigated (typical of the parameters encountered in anchorage dependent cell cultures in micro gravity). Using time scales, the effects of flow field development, concentration boundary layer development and free stream concentration variation are investigated. For the range of parameters considered, the development of the flow field has a negligible effect on the time variation of the Sherwood number (Sh). The Sh time dependence is dominated by concentration boundary layer development for early times and free stream concentration variations at later times.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2003;125(4):724-733. doi:10.1115/1.1589504.

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of the use of the exergy analysis in the optimization of the geometry of a periodic-flow regenerator. The optimum geometry of the regenerator is determined using the unit cost of exergy of the warm air delivered as the objective function. The running cost is determined using different unit costs for the pressure component of exergy ΔP and the thermal component of exergy ΔT, which are evaluated separately. The ratio of the two unit costs has been calculated for an air-conditioning application in which the regenerator is used. A mathematical model of condensation, evaporation, thermal conductivity and heat transfer is presented for calculating the fluid and matrix temperatures effect on the regenerator performance. The governing differential equations have been formulated in terms of the characteristic dimensionless groups t,Λt, and Zt).

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

TECHNICAL NOTES

J. Heat Transfer. 2003;125(4):734-739. doi:10.1115/1.1532016.

This paper presents the numerical predictions of heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics for natural convection in a vertical channel with two-dimensional protruding heat-flux module as applied to the cooling of electronic components. The investigation is for a configuration consisting of a single module mounted on a vertical adiabatic wall. An attempt was made to combine the temperature of the module for all the dimensions of the module into a single composite correlation, along with the numerical data.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2003;125(4):739-746. doi:10.1115/1.1561454.

The SKN method is proposed for solving radiative transfer problems in solid spherical participating medium. The method relies on approximating the integral transfer kernels by a sum of synthetic kernels. Then the transfer equation is reducible to a set of N-coupled second-order differential equations. The method is benchmarked against the exact and the discrete-ordinates method solutions for various optical radius and scattering albedos. Spatially varying scattering albedos are used to test the performance of the method in inhomogeneous media. Three quadrature sets are proposed for use with this method, and their convergence to the exact solution is investigated. It is demonstrated that the SKN method possess the capability of solving radiative transfer problems yielding excellent solutions in solid spherical media.

J. Heat Transfer. 2003;125(4):746-748. doi:10.1115/1.1571090.

This paper addresses fouling in a family of seven copper helically ribbed tubes. Series of semi-theoretical linear fouling correlations for long term combined precipitation and particulate fouling (PPF) in cooling tower systems and for accelerated particulate fouling were developed.

J. Heat Transfer. 2003;125(4):748-752. doi:10.1115/1.1571092.

Direct Geometric Monte Carlo modeling of a fibrous medium is undertaken. The medium is represented as a monodisperse array, with known solidity, of randomly oriented cylinders of known index of refraction. This technique has the advantage that further radiative properties of the medium (absorption coefficient, scattering albedo, scattering phase function) are not required, and the drawback that its’ Snell- and Fresnel-generated dynamics suggest a limitation to large, smooth fibers. It is found that radiative heat flux results are highly dependent on bias in the polar orientation angle (relative to the boundary planes) of the fibers. Randomly oriented fiber results compare well to both the large (specular radiosity method) and small (radiative transfer equation) limits, while the results of previous experiments lie within the range of simulation results generated using varying degrees of orientation bias.

J. Heat Transfer. 2003;125(4):752-756. doi:10.1115/1.1576810.

The paper deals with the unified Wilson plot method used for obtaining heat transfer correlations for finned heat exchangers. In this approach, the direct nonlinear regression is implemented. The numerical example with uncertainty analysis is included as well.

J. Heat Transfer. 2003;125(4):756-759. doi:10.1115/1.1573228.

It is common to correct for the effect of exponential dependence on inverse absolute temperature of the viscosity on the Nusselt number for laminar natural convection by multiplying the correlation for constant properties by a factor w)n to obtain Nu=C Ra1/4w)n. That there is a sound basis for the functional form of this corrective term is newly shown by employing an integral method to obtain closed-form solutions to the laminar boundary-layer equations for the case of a vertical plate of specified temperature immersed in such a liquid. The basis for the alternative means of correction by using the correlation for constant properties with viscosity evaluated at a special reference temperature is also shown.

J. Heat Transfer. 2003;125(4):760-764. doi:10.1115/1.1578505.

Numerical results are presented for heat transfer enhancement using electric field in forced convection in a horizontal channel. The main objective of the present study is to verify the assumption that is commonly used in the numerical study of this kind of problem, which assumes that the electric field can modify the flow field but not vice versa (i.e., the so-called one-way coupling). To this end, numerical solutions are obtained for a wide range of governing parameters (V0=10, 12.5, 15 and 17.5 kV as well as ui=0.0759 to 1.2144 m/s) using both one-way and two-way couplings. The results obtained, in terms of the flow, temperature, and electric fields as well as the heat transfer enhancement, are thoroughly examined. Since the difference in the results obtained by two approaches is insignificant, it is concluded that the assumption of one-way coupling is valid for the problem considered.

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