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Guest Editorial

J. Heat Transfer. 2016;138(2):020301-020301-1. doi:10.1115/1.4032228.

The 20th Heat Transfer Photogallery was sponsored by the K-22 Heat Transfer Visualization Committee for the first Thermal and Fluids Engineering Summer Conference (TFESC) in New York, NY on Aug. 9–12, 2015. The photogallery sessions in this conference presented a total of 17 entries, and the peer-reviewed evaluation conducted by the participants has identified the 13 final entries for publication in this ASME Journal of Heat Transfer February issue of 2016.

Topics: Heat transfer
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Review Article

J. Heat Transfer. 2015;138(2):020801-020801-10. doi:10.1115/1.4031731.

This paper proposes a numerical analysis of entropy generation during mixed convection inside a porous Poiseuille–Benard channel flow, where the Darcy–Brinkman model is used. Irreversibilities due to heat transfer and viscous dissipation have been derived, and then calculated by numerically solving mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations, by using a control volume finite element method (CVFEM). For a fixed value of the thermal Rayleigh (Ra = 104) and the modified Brinkman (Br* = 10−3) numbers, transient entropy generation exhibits a periodic behavior for the medium porosity ε ≥ 0.2, which is described by the onset of thermoconvective cells inside the porous channel. Highest irreversibility is obtained at ε = 0.5. More details about the effects of the Darcy, the Rayleigh, and the modified Brinkman numbers on entropy generation and heat transfer are discussed and graphically presented.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Photogallery

J. Heat Transfer. 2016;138(2):020901-020901-1. doi:10.1115/1.4032229.

Surface temperature and apparent radiative surface properties (emissivity, absorptivity) may be controlled by varying surface topology through a phenomenon known as the cavity effect. Cavities created by origami folds offer the potential to achieve dynamic control of apparent radiative surface properties through actuation. To illustrate this phenomenon, a thin (0.0254 mm) stainless-steel, specularly reflecting surface (emissivity, ε = 0.117) was resistively heated (6.74 W). Accordion-shaped folds (1.27 cm panels) were used to create V-shaped grooves that transition from 29° at the center to 180° near the edges. Thermocouples were attached to the center of each cavity panel (Figure (a)). An IR image of the surface (Figure (b)) reveals that the apparent temperature increases as the cavity angle decreases and is not necessarily indicative of the actual surface temperature. This increase is due to an increase in the number of specular reflections associated with the cavity effect. A similar folded surface was placed 7 cm from a blackbody radiator at 1000° C, to illustrate the change in apparent absorptivity with cavity angle. The cavity angle was held constant across the surface and varied between tests from 180° to 37° (Figure (c), top to bottom). The increase in apparent temperature is a direct result of the increase in apparent absorptivity for decreasing cavity angle, despite constant heating conditions.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2016;138(2):020902-020902-1. doi:10.1115/1.4032230.

The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of droplet-induced crown propagation regimes (spreading and splashing) on liquid film hydrodynamics and heat transfer. In this work, the effects of high frequency droplet train impingement on spreading-splashing transition, liquid film hydrodynamics and surface heat transfer were investigated experimentally. HFE-7100 droplet train was generated using a piezo-electric droplet generator at a fixed flow rate of 165 mL/h. Optical and IR images were captured at stable droplet impingement conditions to visualize the thermal physical process. The droplet-induced crown propagation transition phenomena from spreading to splashing were observed by increasing the droplet Weber number. The liquid film hydrodynamics induced by droplet train impingement becomes more complex when the surface was heated. Bubbles and micro-scale fingering phenomena were observed outside the impact crater under low heat flux conditions. Dry-out was observed outside the impact craters under high heat flux conditions. IR images of the heater surface show that heat transfer was most effective within the droplet impact crater zone due to high fluid inertia including high radial momentum caused by high-frequency droplet impingement. Time-averaged heat transfer measurements indicate that the heat flux-surface temperature curves are linear at low surface temperature and before the onset of dry-out. However, a sharp increase in surface temperature can be observed when dry-out appears on the heater surface. Results also show that strong splashing (We = 850) is unfavorable for heat transfer at high heat flux conditions due to instabilities of the liquid film, which lead to the onset of dry-out. In summary, the results show that droplet Weber number is a significant factor in the spreading-splashing transition, liquid film hydrodynamics and heat transfer.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2016;138(2):020903-020903-1. doi:10.1115/1.4032231.

The objective of this study is to investigate the hydrodynamics and heat transfer phenomena due to high frequency droplet train impingement on a pre-wetted solid surface for electronic cooling applications. The effects of crown propagation dynamics and surface heat transfer were investigated experimentally and numerically. Experimentally, a single stream of mono-dispersed HFE-7100 droplets was generated using a piezo-electric droplet generator at a frequency ( f ) of 6000 Hz with a droplet Weber number (We) of 280. Droplet-induced crater and crown were imaged using a high speed camera system. Numerically, the ANSYS Fluent CFD tool was used to simulate the droplet train impingement process. A reasonable agreement was reached between experimental and numerical data in terms of crown propagation dynamics. Numerical simulations reveal that at the instant of initial spot formation, the magnitude of droplet velocity is almost identical to the crown's radial velocity. The instantaneous temperature field obtained by numerical simulations shows that heat transfer was most effective within the crown propagation region due to the radial momentum generated by the droplets, which leads to a large velocity gradient within the liquid film. A significant increase in surface temperature was observed beyond a radial position of 500 μm. In summary, high frequency droplet impingement leads to a very small temperature gradient in the radial direction within the droplet-induced impact crater. This study will benefit in understanding the relationship between the droplet parameters and surface heat transfer for different cooling applications involving impinging droplets.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2016;138(2):020904-020904-1. doi:10.1115/1.4032232.

One of the key limitations to long-term space missions is to avoid propellant boil-off in a microgravity space environment. Even with the use of active and passive controls of propellants, boil off is inevitable. Long-term CFD simulations on propellant behaviors depend on evaporation/condensation coefficients (known as accommodation coefficients) which are in turn dependent upon the wetting characteristics. Phase change experiments were conducted in the BT-2 neutron imaging facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) by introducing vapor H2 in 10 mm Al6061 and SS316L test cells placed inside the 70mm ‘orange’ cryostat. Condensation is achieved by lowering the cryostat temperature below the saturation point and vice versa for evaporation. The high neutron cross-section of liquid H2 in comparison to both the vapor and the test cell materials allows for visualization of a distinct liquid-vapor interface. Multiple images are stacked to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and the meniscus edge is obtained by detecting the pixels with largest gradients in intensities at the liquid meniscus. The contact angle is obtained by curve fitting of the Young-Laplace equation to the detected meniscus. The contact angle for Al6061 and SS316 is found to be between 0° and 4°. The uncertainty arises from edge detection, magnification, and resolution limits of the neutron imaging setup. The test was conducted at a saturation temperature of 21K (1.215 bar). The results from the neutron experiments will be then used in conjunction with FEA thermal models and kinetic phase change models to extract accommodation coefficients.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2016;138(2):020905-020905-1. doi:10.1115/1.4032233.

Steam discharged into subcooled water is investigated experimentally to demonstrate the direct contact condensation phenomena in nuclear reactor safety system and underwater propulsion apparatus. The steam jet condenses to various shapes at different thermal hydraulic conditions. A condensation regime diagram is drawn to classify the regime for different flow patterns, among which there are three typical shapes of steam plume characterizing the chugging, condensation oscillation, stable condensation regime (Figure 1). The flow region can be separated into three parts—vapor, water and two-phase regions, and the white patch in the image indicating the two-phase region is a mixture of condensed vapor and subcooled water. Three typical stages of bubble motions—growth (subimage 1 to 6, Figure 2), necking (subimage 7 to 10, Figure 2), and detachment (subimage 11 to 13, Figure 2)—are demonstrated. The bubble diameter reaches the maximum at the necking stage and remains approximately invariant with the connecting neck prolonging for a period. A series of sequent photos exhibits shape transformations at the stable condensation regime, implying that the steam plume grows and shortens periodically due to comprehensive effects of injection, viscosity damping and condensation (Figure 3). The dimensionless penetration length, defined as the ratio of penetration length to nozzle diameter, is in the range of 8.23–11.67 in the Figure 3. The majority of previous literatures present the average dimensionless penetration length which is closely related with time-averaged heat transfer characteristic. However, variations of steam plume are proven to account for pressure oscillation phenomena by the transient visualization investigations, in which the first dominant frequency acquired from the FFT domain graph of pressure signal is consistent with the period of steam plume variations. The second dominant frequency is verified to be caused by oscillations of detached bubbles (subimage 8 and 9, Figure 3) in the research.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2016;138(2):020906-020906-1. doi:10.1115/1.4032234.

Frequency domain thermoreflectance (FDTR) is used to create quantitative maps of thermal conductivity and thickness for a thinning gallium nitride (GaN) film on silicon carbide (SiC). GaN was grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a 4H-SiC substrate with a gradient in the film thickness found near the edge of the chip. The sample was then coated with a 5 nm nickel adhesion layer and a 85 nm gold transducer layer for the FDTR measurement. A piezo stage raster scans the sample to create phase images at different frequencies. For each pixel, a periodically modulated continuous-wave laser (the red pump beam) is focused to a Gaussian spot, less than 2 um in diameter, to locally heat the sample, while a second beam (the green probe beam) monitors the surface temperature through a proportional change in the reflectivity of gold. The pump beam is modulated simultaneously at six frequencies and the thermal conductivity and thickness of the GaN film are extracted by minimizing the error between the measured probe phase lag at each frequency and an analytical solution to the heat diffusion equation in a multilayer stack of materials. A scanning electron microscope image verifies the thinning GaN. We mark the imaged area with a red box. A schematic of the GaN sample in our measurement system is shown in the top right corner, along with the two fitting properties highlighted with a red box. We show the six phase images and the two obtained property maps: thickness and thermal conductivity of the GaN. Our results indicate a thickness dependent thermal conductivity of GaN, which has implications of thermal management in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2016;138(2):020907-020907-1. doi:10.1115/1.4032235.

A good wicking structure is necessary for the design of a highly efficient heat pipe. Several unique aluminum oxide nanostructures were developed as wicks for heat pipes. The wicks were manufactured via an anodization process at various anodization voltages and etching times. This allows for the manufacture of spatially variable wicking structures that can be tuned for specific applications. The resulting nanostructures were characterized with a scanning electron microscope. Six distinct wicking structures are shown in Fig. 1. The honeycomb nanostructure is a self-ordered, hexagonal columnar array. The clumped nanotube structure is composed of bundles of nanotubes separated by deep grooves. The teepee nanostructure has a honeycomb bottom covered with a conical structure top. The horizontal nanofiber structure consists of nanofibers laying parallel to the substrate surface. The ridge network nanostructure is a multiscaled structure with nanoporous ridges. The clumped nanofiber structure is formed from long tangled fibers that meet in a thin ridge. Each of these structures has features useful for nucleation, evaporation, and condensation. These wicks will have many applications in the fields of heat pipes and two-phase heat transfer.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2016;138(2):020908-020908-1. doi:10.1115/1.4032252.

Gas-liquid two-phase flow in a circular pipeline is commonly encountered in an inclined pipeline of an offshore plant. To visualize gas-liquid flow phenomena in an inclined pipeline, the w-shaped transparent pipeline was fabricated with internal diameter of 2″ and slope angle of 25°. The terrain-induced slug flow in a steady-state was visualized at fixed water flow rate of 1 m3/hr and 80% GVF (Gas Volume Fraction). The air and water flow is initially maintained in stratified or wavy flow at t = 0 s. When the velocity difference between the air and water is high enough, the Kelvin-Helmholtz wave motion starts to occur just after at t = 0 s. As the wave reaches the top, the upward water flow is faced with the downward water flow in the main visualized region. When the airway is clogged, the air slug is formed at t = 0.02 s. When a huge tidal wave is observed at t = 0.1 s due to different velocity between the upward water and the downward water flow, the air slug travels at a greater velocity than the water flow. As the tidal wave enlarges its growth, the chaotic motion with scattered bubbles is exhibited at the gas-liquid interface. A series of the air slugging is periodically observed after near 0.5 s. At the second v-shaped pipeline, the slugging phenomena become even more severe due to an irregular water inflow from the first v-shaped pipeline.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2016;138(2):020909-020909-1. doi:10.1115/1.4032253.

The simultaneous measurement between the boiling visualization and the boiling heat transfer characteristics by two adjacent impinging jets on hot steel plate was made by the experimental technique that has a function of high-temperature flat-plate heat flux gauge. The 22 K-type thermocouples were installed at 1 mm below the surface of flat-plate heat flux gauge. The 2-D inverse heat conduction was formulated to solve the surface temperature and heat flux. The boiling visualization was synchronized with a 4K video camera which was meaningful to understand complex boiling heat transfer phenomena. The heat flux gauge was uniformly heated up to 900°C by induction heating. The successive boiling images show where the nucleate boiling starts to occur on hot surface and the film boiling turns to be collapsed. The measured surface temperature and heat flux distribution agrees well with the corresponding boiling visualization: While heat transfer at the stagnation point shows a maximum heat flux, the interaction between two adjacent impinging jets exhibits a relative high heat flux and a steep temperature gradient until the end of boiling heat transfer at which single-phase convection occurs near 200°C.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2016;138(2):020910-020910-1. doi:10.1115/1.4032254.

We captured interesting static and dynamic behavior of the liquid-vapor interface in well-defined silicon micropillar arrays during thermally driven evaporation of water from the microstructured surface. The 3-D shape of the meniscus was characterized via laser interferometry where bright and dark fringes result from the interference of incident and reflected monochromatic light due to a variable thickness thin liquid film (FIG. 1). During steady state evaporation experiments, water was supplied to the sample with a syringe pump at 10 μL/min. FIG. 2a and 2b show a SEM image of a typical fabricated micropillar array and a schematic of the experimental setup, respectively.

When water wicks through the micropillar array, the meniscus in a unit cell (four pillars in FIG. 1) assumes an equilibrium shape depending on the location from the liquid source/reservoir and the ambient conditions (ambient evaporation at Qin = 0 W). At this point, the meniscus is pinned at the top of the pillars. As the evaporation rate increases due the applied heat flux, the meniscus increases in curvature, thus increasing the capillary pressure to sustain the higher evaporation rate. This is evidenced by the increasing number of fringes in the unit cell when Qin is increased (0 W, 0.11 W, 0.44 W, and 0.99 W, FIG. 1a-1d respectively). Beyond a maximum curvature, the meniscus de-pins from the pillar top surface and recedes within the unit cell. This occurs when the capillary pressure generated at this curvature, cannot balance the viscous loss resulting from flow through the micropillar array. We observed that this receding shape was independent of the applied heat, and only depended on the micropillar array geometry and the intrinsic wettability of the material. Representative meniscus profiles along the diagonal direction of the unit cell obtained from image analysis of FIG. 1 at various Qin are shown in FIG. 2c.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2016;138(2):020911-020911-1. doi:10.1115/1.4032255.

Thermal waves can reveal thermal properties of different layers forming a multilayer structure. If the thickness of each layer is known, specific ranges of thermal wave frequencies can be implemented to study the thermal response of a specific number of layers and eventually extract the thermal properties of individual layers. As a first approach this idea can be simplified by means of the thermal penetration depth parameter, δ. The thermal penetration depth is defined as, δ=k/πCf, where k and C are respectively the thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of the material carrying the thermal wave and f is the frequency of the thermal wave. From this expression it can be seen how it is possible to constrain the material thermal response to a desired depth by controlling the frequency. Thus, using high enough frequencies, the top layer properties would be measured first. Decreasing the thermal wave frequency by an appropriate amount would include the next layer in the thermal response. Since the properties of the first layer are now known, it would be possible to extract the properties of the current layer. The measurement would continue in a similar fashion for the remaining layers. Frequency domain thermoreflectance (FDTR) can be used to generate thermal waves. In this technique, a periodically modulated continuous wave laser (red pump beam) provides the periodic heat flux input into the material while a second laser (green probe beam) monitors the surface temperature through a proportional change of the surface reflectivity. The measured value is the phase lag (degrees) between the incoming thermal wave and the surface temperature response. In this study, an FDTR system was used in conjunction with a piezo stage to obtain thermal images of two different multilayer structures. The first one consisted of a CPU chip formed mainly by layers of SiO2 and Cu. The second case consisted of a TFT LCD screen from a mobile device. Regarding the CPU chip, the low frequency thermal wave travelled well past the second layer of Cu wires and provided thermal information about the bottom layers of the chip. In contrast, the high frequency wave could not penetrate through the second layer, which resulted in a more sensitive response upon the Cu wires close to the surface. A similar phenomenon occurred with the LCD screen. In this case the top layer was a glass layer used to sandwich the liquid crystal and the second layer is composed of the ITO electrodes that provide the electric field. It can be observed how the high frequency wave did not penetrate through the top glass layer providing no thermal information about the bottom layer as opposed to the low frequency wave, which clearly shows the ITO electrodes. The estimated thermal penetration depths displayed on top of each image were calculated using the equation provided before with known thermal properties of SiO2, Cu and ITO.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2016;138(2):020912-020912-1. doi:10.1115/1.4032256.

Non-scanning 3D-CT(Computer Tomography) technique employing a multi-directional quantitative schlieren photographic system(top-left picture) with flash light source, has been performed to obtain instantaneous density distributions of high-speed turbulent flames(for reference, the target flame of 8 m/s exit velocity is indicated in the right-top picture). For simultaneous schlieren photography, the custom-made 20-directional schlieren camera was constructed and used. The target turbulent flame is high-speed flames, anchored on the burner of a nozzle exit of 4.2 mm diameter. The image set of 20 directional schlieren images are processed by MLEM CT-algorithm to obtain the 3D reconstruction of instantaneous density distribution. The solid models(bottom picture) of threshold density level of 0.7 kg/m3 are 3D-printed as 4 times large size for detail observations. The average exit velocity of the propane-air mixture of equivalence ratio of 1.1 is set to be 10, 8, 6 and 4 m/s (models from left to right in the bottom picture). The solid models show the complicated shape of the high speed turbulent flames. The flame structure of higher speed flame has fine scale corrugations. This corresponds to the “corrugated flamelets regime” of the Borghi & Peters diagram well.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2016;138(2):020913-020913-1. doi:10.1115/1.4032257.

The main objective of this study is to examine the frosting characteristics affected by the surface wettability. Two different copper surfaces – bare and nano structured - were prepared for the experiments. Their static contact angles are 74° (bare: without surface treatment) and 154° (nano-structured), respectively. The temperature of the copper substrate was measured by using resistance temperature detector (RTD) sensors embedded inside small holes drilled at 1 mm underneath the surface. During the phase change, the temperature of the copper substrates remained -7.8±0.6°C and the ambient temperature was set as 24±0.5°C with the relative humidity of 45%. Images were captured by using the CMOS camera with the 5 second time interval. Film condensation occurred because of higher wettability of the bare copper surface. Film condensates were frozen at the early stage and frost crystal grew in the vertical direction. On the other hand, dropwise condensates formed on the nano-structured copper surface remained as the supercooled liquid phase for 44 minutes owing to its low wettability. After 4 minutes, frosting on the bare copper substrate was triggered and propagated until it covered the whole surface. The frosting was significantly delayed on the superhydrophobic copper surface due to the lower surface free energy. The different porous media composed of frost which directly influence the heat transfer characteristics was formed on each surfaces. Therefore, additional investigation for heat transfer phenomenon on superhydrophobic surface should be conducted.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Conduction

J. Heat Transfer. 2015;138(2):021301-021301-6. doi:10.1115/1.4031730.

Nanoparticles aggregation is considered, by the heat transfer community, as one of the main factors responsible for the observed enhancement in the thermal conductivity of nanofluids. To gain a better insight into the veracity of this claim, we experimentally investigated the influence of nanoparticles aggregation induced by changing the pH value or imposing a magnetic field on the thermal conductivity of water-based nanofluids. The results showed that the enhancement in thermal conductivity of TiO2–water nanofluid, due to pH-induced aggregation of TiO2 nanoparticles, fell within the ±10% of the mixture theory, while applying an external magnetic force on Fe3O4–water nanofluid led to thermal conductivity enhancements of up to 167%. It is believed that the observed low enhancement in thermal conductivity of TiO2–water nanofluid is because, near the isoelectric point (IEP), the nanoparticles could settle out of the suspension in the form of large aggregates making the suspension rather unstable. The magnetic field however could provide a finer control over the aggregate size and growth direction without compromising the stability of the nanofluid, and hence significantly enhancing the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Evaporation, Boiling, and Condensation

J. Heat Transfer. 2015;138(2):021501-021501-8. doi:10.1115/1.4031233.

Boiling and bubble dynamics were experimentally investigated in a Hele-Shaw flow cell using pure water at atmospheric pressure as the working fluid. The resulting vapor bubble shapes were recorded by means of a high-speed camera for several plate spacings and heating power levels. It was found that viscous fingering phenomena of vapor bubbles occurred only under very special boiling conditions and cell parameters. The evaporation front velocity was identified as a major parameter for the onset of viscous fingering. The observed basic viscous fingering dynamics was in reasonable agreement with theoretical analyses. In addition to that classical viscous large fingering, small-scale evaporation instability was observed leading to microscopic roughening of accelerating evaporation fronts. This instability might be explicitly related to evaporative heat and mass transfer effects across the fast-moving phase interface.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2015;138(2):021502-021502-12. doi:10.1115/1.4031234.

This paper presents a fundamental study of the flow dynamics and heat transfer induced by a slug flow under saturated flow boiling in a circular microchannel. Numerical simulations are carried out by utilizing the commercial CFD solver ansys fluent v. 14.5, with its built-in volume of fluid (VOF) method to advect the interface, which was improved here by implementing self-developed functions to model the phase change and the surface tension force. A continuous stream of bubbles is generated (by additional user-defined functions) by patching vapor bubbles at the channel upstream with a constant generation frequency. This modeling framework can capture the essential features of heat transfer in slug flows for a continuous stream of bubbles which are here investigated in detail, e.g., the mutual influence among the growing bubbles, the fluid mechanics in the liquid slug trapped between two consecutive bubbles, the effect of bubble acceleration on the thickness of the thin liquid film trapped against the channel wall and on other bubbles, and the transient growth of the heat transfer coefficient and then its periodic variation at the terminal steady-periodic regime, which is reached after the transit of a few bubble–liquid slug pairs. Furthermore, the results for a continuous stream of bubbles are found to be quite different than that of a single bubble, emphasizing the importance of modeling multiple bubbles to study this process. Finally, the outcomes of this analysis are utilized to advance a theoretical model for heat transfer in microchannel slug flow that best reproduces the present simulation data.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2015;138(2):021503-021503-8. doi:10.1115/1.4031303.

Pool film boiling was studied by visualized quenching experiments on stainless steel spheres in water at the atmospheric pressure. The surfaces of the spheres were coated to be superhydrophobic (SHB), having a static contact angle greater than 160 deg. Subcooled conditions were concerned parametrically with the subcooling degree being varied from 0 °C (saturated) to 70 °C. It was shown that film boiling is the overwhelming mode of heat transfer during the entire course of quenching as a result of the retention of stable vapor film surrounding the SHB spheres, even at very low wall superheat that normally corresponds to nucleate boiling. Pool boiling heat transfer is enhanced with increasing the subcooling degree, in agreement with the thinning trend of the vapor film thickness. The heat flux enhancement was found to be up to fivefold for the subcooling degree of 70 °C in comparison to the saturated case, at the wall superheat of 200 °C. A modified correlation in the ratio form was proposed to predict pool film boiling heat transfer from spheres as a function of the subcooling degree.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2015;138(2):021504-021504-16. doi:10.1115/1.4031648.

Research efforts on flow boiling in microchannels were focused on stabilizing the flow during the early part of the last decade. After achieving that goal through inlet restrictors and distributed nucleation sites, the focus has now shifted on improving its performance for high heat flux dissipation. The recent worldwide efforts described in this paper are aimed at increasing the critical heat flux (CHF) and reducing the pressure drop, with an implicit goal of dissipating 1 kW/cm2 for meeting the high-end target in electronics cooling application. The underlying mechanisms in these studies are identified and critically evaluated for their potential in meeting the high heat flux dissipation goals. Future need to simultaneously increase the CHF and the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) has been identified and hierarchical integration of nanoscale and microscale technologies is deemed necessary for developing integrated pathways toward meeting this objective.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Forced Convection

J. Heat Transfer. 2015;138(2):021701-021701-8. doi:10.1115/1.4031109.

A comprehensive analysis to convection heat transfer of power-law fluids along the inclined nonuniformly heated plate with suction or injection is presented. The effects of power-law viscosity on temperature field are taken into account in highly coupled velocity and temperature fields. Analytical solutions are established by homotopy analysis method (HAM), and the effects of pertinent parameters (velocity power-law exponent, temperature power index, suction/injection parameter, and inclination angle) are analyzed. Some new interesting phenomena are found, for example, unlike classical boundary layer problem in which the skin friction monotonically increases (decreases) with suction increases (injection increases), but there exists a special region where the skin friction is not monotonic, which is strongly bound up with Prandtl number, which have never been reported before. The nonmonotony occurs in suction region for Prandtl number Npr < 1 and injection region for Npr > 1. Results also illustrate that the velocity profile decreases but the heat convection is enhanced obviously with increasing in temperature power exponent m (generalized Prandtl number Npr has similar effects), the decreases in inclination angle lead to the reduction in convection and heat transfer efficiency.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2015;138(2):021702-021702-10. doi:10.1115/1.4031647.

Free convection air cooling from a vertically placed heat sink is enhanced by upward concurrent pulsated air flow generated by mesoscale synthetic jets. The cooling enhancement is experimentally studied. An enhancement factor is introduced and defined as the ratio of convection heat transfer coefficients for jet-on (enhanced convection) to jet-off (natural convection) cooling conditions. To obtain the two coefficients, heat transfer by radiation is excluded. A high-resolution infrared (IR) camera is used to capture detailed local temperature distribution on the heat sink surface under both cooling conditions. Analysis is carried out to obtain local convection heat transfer coefficients based on measured local surface temperatures. The enhancement of convectional cooling by synthetic jets can be then quantified both locally and globally for the entire heat sink. Two categories of thermal tests are conducted. First, tests are conducted with a single jet to investigate the effects of jet placement and orifice size on cooling enhancement, while multiple jets are tested to understand how cooling performance changes with the number of jets. It is found that the cooling enhancement is considerably sensitive to jet placement. Jet flow directly blowing on fins provides more significant enhancement than blowing through the channel between fins. When using one jet, the enhancement ranges from 1.6 to 1.9 times. When multiple jets are used, the heat transfer enhancement increases from 3.3 times for using three jets to 4.8 times for using five jets. However, for practical thermal designs, increasing the number of jets increases the power consumption. Hence, a new parameter, “jet impact factor (JIF),” is defined to quantify the enhancement contribution per jet. JIF is found to change with the number of jets. For example, the four-jet configuration shows higher JIF due to higher contribution per jet than both three-jet and five-jet configurations.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2015;138(2):021703-021703-12. doi:10.1115/1.4031645.

The unsteady flow physics and heat transfer characteristics due to interactions of periodic passing wakes with a separated boundary layer are studied using large-eddy simulation (LES). A series of airfoils of constant thickness with rounded leading edge are employed to obtain the separated boundary layer. Wake data extracted from precursor LES of flow past a cylinder are used to replicate a moving bar that generates wakes in front of a cascade (in this case, an infinite row of the model airfoils). This setup is a simplified representation of the rotor–stator interaction in turbomachinery. With a uniform inlet, the laminar boundary layer separates near the leading edge, undergoes transition due to amplification of disturbances, becomes turbulent, and finally reattaches forming a separation bubble. In the presence of oncoming wakes, the characteristics of the separated boundary layer have changed and the impinging wakes are found to be the mechanism affecting the reattachment. Phase-averaged results illustrate the periodic behavior of both flow and heat transfer. Large undulations in the phase-averaged skin friction and Nusselt number distributions can be attributed to the excitation of the boundary layer by convective wakes forming coherent vortices, which are being shed and convect downstream. Further, the transition of the separated boundary layer during the wake-induced path is governed by a mechanism that involves the convection of these vortices followed by increased fluctuations, where viscous effect is substantial.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2015;138(2):021704-021704-10. doi:10.1115/1.4031646.

Experimental results are presented for single-phase heat transfer in a narrow rectangular minichannel heated on one side. The aspect ratio and gap thickness of the test channel were 29:1 and 1.96 mm, respectively. Friction pressure drop and Nusselt numbers are reported for the transition and fully turbulent flow regimes, with Prandtl numbers ranging from 2.2 to 5.4. Turbulent friction pressure drop for the high aspect ratio channel is well-correlated by the Blasius solution when a modified Reynolds number, based upon a laminar equivalent diameter, is utilized. The critical Reynolds number for the channel falls between 3500 and 4000, with Nusselt numbers in the transition regime being reasonably predicted by Gnielinski's correlation. The dependence of the heat transfer coefficient on the Prandtl number is larger than that predicted by circular tube correlations, and is likely a result of the asymmetric heating. The problem of asymmetric heating condition is approached theoretically using a boundary layer analysis with a two-region wall layer model, similar to that originally proposed by Prandtl. The analysis clarifies the influence of asymmetric heating on the Nusselt number and correctly predicts the experimentally observed trend with Prandtl number. A semi-analytic correlation is derived from the analysis that accounts for the effect of aspect ratio and asymmetric heating, and is shown to predict the experimental results of this study with a mean absolute error (MAE) of less than 5% for 4000 < Re < 70,000.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2015;138(2):021705-021705-9. doi:10.1115/1.4031699.

The single-phase flow and heat transfer behaviors of SiC and Al2O3 nanoparticles dispersed in water were studied experimentally in a multiport minichannel flat tube (MMFT). The volume concentrations of the two nanofluids ranged from 0.001% to 1%. Their effective particle sizes, thermal conductivities, and viscosities were also measured. Results indicated that these nanofluids as a working fluid could enhance heat transfer but increase pressure drop and the Nusselt number by up to 85%. The two nanofluids exhibited a common optimal volume concentration of 0.01% for heat transfer. Effective particle size was also found to have a significant effect on heat transfer.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Jets, Wakes, and Impingment Cooling

J. Heat Transfer. 2015;138(2):022201-022201-9. doi:10.1115/1.4031130.

The steady-state viscous flow and also heat transfer in the vicinity of an axisymmetric stagnation point on a cylinder moving axially with a constant velocity are investigated. Here, fluid with temperature-dependent density is considered. The impinging freestream is steady and with a constant strain rate (strength) k¯. An exact solution of the Navier–Stokes equations and energy equation is derived in this problem. A reduction of these equations is obtained by use of appropriate transformations. The general self-similar solution is obtained when the wall temperature of the cylinder or its wall heat flux is constant. All the solutions above are presented for Reynolds numbers, Re=k¯a2/2υ, ranging from 0.1 to 1000, low Mach number, selected values of compressibility factor, and different values of Prandtl numbers where a is cylinder radius and υ is kinematic viscosity of the fluid. Shear stress is presented as well. Axial movement of the cylinder does not have any effect on heat transfer but its increase increases the axial component of fluid velocity field and the shear stress.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Porous Media

J. Heat Transfer. 2015;138(2):022601-022601-7. doi:10.1115/1.4031700.

The knowledge of thermal transport characteristics is of primary importance in the application of foams. The thermal characteristics of a foam heavily depend on its microstructure and, therefore, have to be investigated at a pore level. However, this analysis is a challenging task, because of the complex geometry of a foam. The use of foam models is a promising tool in their study. The Kelvin and the Weaire–Phelan foam models, among the most representative practical foam models, are used in this paper to numerically investigate heat transfer and pressure drop in metallic foams. They are developed in the “surface evolver” open source software. Mass, momentum, and energy equations, for air forced convection in open cell foams, are solved with a finite-element method, for different values of cell size and porosity. Heat transfer and pressure drop results are reported in terms of volumetric Nusselt number and Darcy–Weisbach friction factor, respectively. Finally, a comparison between the numerical predictions obtained with the two foam models is carried out, in order to evaluate the feasibility to substitute the more complex and computationally heavier Weaire–Phelan foam structure with the simpler Kelvin foam representation. Negligible differences between the two models are exhibited at high porosities.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Two-Phase Flow and Heat Transfer

J. Heat Transfer. 2015;138(2):022901-022901-9. doi:10.1115/1.4031268.

Experimental single-phase, condensation, and evaporation (flow boiling) pressure drop data from the literature and our previous studies were collected to evaluate previous frictional pressure drop correlations for horizontal microfin tubes of different geometries. The modified Ravigururajan and Bergles correlation, by adopting the Churchill model to calculate the smooth-tube friction factor and by using the hydraulic diameter in the Reynolds number, can predict single-phase turbulent frictional pressure drop data relatively well. Eleven pressure drop correlations were evaluated by the collected database for condensation and evaporation. Correlations originally developed for condensation and evaporation in smooth tubes can be suitable for microfin tubes if the friction factors in the correlations were calculated by the Churchill model to include microfin effects. The three most accurate correlations were recommended for condensation and evaporation in microfin tubes. The Cavallini et al. correlation and the modified Friedel correlation can give good predictions for both condensation and evaporation. However, some inconsistencies were found, even for the recommended correlations.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Technical Brief

J. Heat Transfer. 2015;138(2):024501-024501-8. doi:10.1115/1.4031171.

This work presents a mathematical model for simulating the swirling flow in an outward convex corrugated tube with twisted-tape insert (CT). The synergistic effect on the flow, heat transfer, and friction loss behaviors between the surface-based and fluid-based enhancements is numerically investigated. Renormalized group (RNG) k-ε turbulence model applied in our paper is verified by comparing with experimental results investigated by Manglik and Bergles. Comparisons of the CT and smooth tube with twisted-tape insert (ST) plots are confirmed to investigate the performance differences between them. When comparing the performance of the CT against the ST, the maximum ratio of Nusselt number (Nuc/Nus), ratio of friction factor (f/fs), and overall heat transfer performance (η) values realized in the CT are 1.36, 1.53, and 1.15 times higher, respectively, than the maximum values for those same variables in the ST.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2015;138(2):024502-024502-8. doi:10.1115/1.4031252.

In this paper, a figure of merit for the cooling capacity (FOMq) of phase change materials (PCMs) is defined from the analytical solution of the two-phase Neumann–Stefan problem of melting of a semi-infinite material with a fixed temperature boundary condition (BC). This figure of merit is a function of the thermophysical properties of a PCM and is proportional to the heat transfer across the interface with the surrounding medium in this general case. Thus, it has important implications for design and optimization of PCMs for high heat-flux thermal management applications. FOMq of example low melting point metals are presented which exceed those in common nonmetallic PCMs over the same temperature range by over an order of magnitude.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2015;138(2):024503-024503-5. doi:10.1115/1.4031172.

Radiation would be more important in turbine heat transfer due to higher temperature and multicomposition gas conditions in the future. The main goal of the current study is analyzing the characteristics of conjugate heat transfer considering radiation heat transfer, multicomposition gas, either with or without TBC coated. Both experimental and numerical studies were carried out. By comparing the experimental and the numerical results, it was concluded that the implemented thermal conduction/convection/radiation simulation method is valid for the cases studied. The results have shown that higher percentage of steam in the gas composition leads to higher temperature (lower normalized temperature) on the plate. With the percentage of steam in the hot gas increasing per 7%, the normalized temperature on the plate decreases about 0.02. The heat insulation effect of TBC is more obvious when the radiation effects are strong.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2015;138(2):024504-024504-4. doi:10.1115/1.4031640.

We consider the heat transfer problem associated with a periodic array of rectangular fins subjected to convection heat transfer with a uniform heat transfer coefficient. Our analysis differs from the classical approach as (i) we consider two-dimensional (2D) heat conduction and (ii) the wall, to which the fins are attached, is included in the analysis. The problem is modeled as a 2D channel whose upper surface is flat and isothermal, while the lower surface has a periodic array of rectangular extensions/fins which are subjected to heat convection. The Biot number (Bi=h t/k) characterizing the heat transfer process is defined with respect to the thickness of the fins (t). Numerical results suggest that the fins would enhance the heat transfer rate only if the Biot number is less than a critical value which is independent of the thickness of the wall, the length of the fins, and the period; the critical Biot number is approximately equal to 1.64. The optimum fins are infinitely thin and long, and densely packed, i.e., hairlike.

Topics: Fins , Heat transfer
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2015;138(2):024505-024505-5. doi:10.1115/1.4031701.

The thermal conductivities of both disordered and self-assembled symmetric polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) copolymer films were measured using time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR). The variation in out-of-plane thermal conductivity with changing block copolymer thickness is similar to that of PMMA polymer brushes and thick spun-cast films. The results suggest that the interfaces between the PS and PMMA, and reorganization of the PS and PMMA chains around these interfaces, do not significantly affect the thermal transport in these PS-b-PMMA films. However, for thin PS-b-PMMA films, the thermal boundary resistances at the sample interfaces limit the thermal transport.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Announcement

J. Heat Transfer. 2016;138(2):028001-028001-1. doi:10.1115/1.4032454.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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