J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(12):120201-120201-2. doi:10.1115/1.4041742.

The following guest editorial represents the views and opinions of the authors and is not in any way intended as an official statement of ASME or of the Society's Heat Transfer Division.

Topics: Heat transfer
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Electronic Cooling

J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(12):121401-121401-13. doi:10.1115/1.4041187.

In this study, convective heat transfer in a discretely heated parallel-plate vertical channel which simulates an IC package is investigated experimentally and numerically. Both natural and mixed convection cases are considered. The primary focus of the study is on determining optimum relative lengths of the heat sources in order to reduce the hot spot temperature and to maximize heat transfer from the sources to air. Various values of the length ratio and the modified Grashof number (for the natural convection case)/the Richardson number (for the mixed convection case) are examined. Conductive and radiative heat transfer is included in the analysis while air is used as the working fluid. Surface temperatures of the heat sources and the channel walls are measured in the experimental study. The numerical studies are performed using a commercial CFD code, ANSYS fluent. The variations of surface temperature, hot spot temperature, Nusselt number, and global conductance of the system are obtained for varying values of the working parameters. From the experimental studies, it is showed that the use of identical heat sources reduces the overall cooling performance both in natural and mixed convection. However, relatively decreasing heat sources lengths provides better cooling performance.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Evaporation, Boiling, and Condensation

J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(12):121501-121501-13. doi:10.1115/1.4040647.

A partial differential–integral equation has been derived to connect vapor condensation and the development of condensate film thickness in both the tangential and axial directions in a horizontal circular condenser tube. A high-order explicit numerical scheme is used to solve the strongly nonlinear equation. A simple strategy is applied to avoid possible large errors from high-order numerical differentiation when the condensate becomes stratified. A set of empirical friction factor and Nusselt number correlations covering both laminar and turbulent film condensation have been incorporated to realistically predict film thickness variation and concurrently allow for the predictions of local heat transfer coefficients. The predicted heat-transfer coefficients of film condensation for refrigerant R134a and water vapor in horizontal circular mini- and macrotubes, respectively, have been compared with the results from experiments and the results from the simulations of film condensation using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and very good agreements have been found. Some of the predicted film condensations are well into the strong stratification regime, and the results show that, in general, the condensate is close to annular near the inlet of the condenser tube and becomes gradually stratified as the condensate travels further away from the inlet for all the simulated conditions. The results also show that the condensate in the minitubes becomes stratified much earlier than that in the macrotubes.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(12):121502-121502-7. doi:10.1115/1.4040783.

This paper quantifies the pool boiling performance of R134a, R1234yf, R513A, and R450A on a flattened, horizontal reentrant cavity surface. The study showed that the boiling performance of R134a on the Turbo-ESP exceeded that of the replacement refrigerants for heat fluxes greater than 20 kW m−2. On average, the heat flux for R1234yf and R513A was 16% and 19% less than that for R134a, respectively, for R134a heat fluxes between 20 kW m−2 and 110 kW m−2. The heat flux for R450A was on average 57% less than that of R134a for heat fluxes between 30 kW m−2 and 110 kW m−2. A model was developed to predict both single-component and multicomponent pool boiling of the test refrigerants on the Turbo-ESP surface. The model accounts for viscosity effects on bubble population and uses the Fritz equation to account for increased vapor production with increasing superheat. Both loss of available superheat and mass transfer resistance effects were modeled for the refrigerant mixtures. For most heat fluxes, the model predicted the measured superheat to within ±0.31 K.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(12):121503-121503-17. doi:10.1115/1.4041088.

Heterogeneous nucleate boiling over a flat surface has been studied through complete numerical simulations. During the growth and departure of the vapor bubble, the interface is tracked following a coupled level-set and volume of fluid approach. A microlayer evaporation model similar to Sato and Niceno [“A depletable microlayer model for nucleate pool boiling,” J. Comput. Phys. 300, 20–52 (2015)] has been deployed in this investigation. A detailed study of the changes in microlayer structure as a result of different modes of boiling scenario has been performed. The departure diameter is found to increase with an increase in substrate superheat. The predicted departure diameter has been compared with the available experimental and analytical results. A power-law curve has been obtained for depicting the growth rate of bubble depending on the degree of superheat at the wall. The space–time averaged wall-heat flux at different values of superheat temperature of substrate is obtained. Bubble growth during subcooled boiling at a low and intermediate subcooled degree has been observed through direct numerical simulations. The variations in bubble dynamics after departure in saturated and subcooled liquid states have been compared.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(12):121504-121504-11. doi:10.1115/1.4041185.

This paper investigates frost formation on a flat horizontal surface, with humid air flowing over the surface and a cold liquid desiccant flowing below the surface. Two different surfaces, a semipermeable membrane and an impermeable plate, are tested. The condensation/frosting limit, that is, the lowest air humidity ratio, Wair, at a constant liquid temperature, Tliq, or the highest Tliq at a constant Wair that leads to condensation/frosting, is determined for each surface. The main aim of this study is to find the effect of moisture transfer through the semipermeable membrane on the condensation/frosting limit. It is found that the semipermeable membrane has a lower condensation/frosting limit, due to the moisture transfer through the semipermeable membrane, which dehumidifies the air flow. For a given Wair, the surface temperature can be approximately 5 to 8 °C lower when using a semipermeable membrane, compared to an impermeable plate, before condensation/frosting occurs. Furthermore, it is shown that at some operating conditions, frost appears on the semipermeable membrane only at the air flow entrance of the test section, while the impermeable plate was fully covered with frost at the same operating conditions. Moreover, it is shown that increasing the moisture transfer rate through the semipermeable membrane decreases the frosting limit and delays frost formation.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Forced Convection

J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(12):121701-121701-10. doi:10.1115/1.4040957.

Turbulent flow heat transfer and friction penalty in triangular cross-sectional duct is studied in the present paper. The sharp corners of the duct are modified by converting it into circular shape. Five different models were designed and fabricated. Heat transfer through all the models was investigated and compared conventional triangular duct under similar conditions. The curvature radius of rounded corners for different models was kept constant (0.33 times the duct height). The numerical simulations were also performed and the obtained result validated with the experimental findings and close match observed between them. The velocity and temperature distribution is analyzed at particular location in the different models. Because of rounded corners, higher velocity is observed inside the duct (except corners) compared to conventional duct. Considerable increase in Nusselt number is seen in model-5, model-4, model-3, and model-2 by 191%, 41%, 19%, and 8% in comparison to model-1, respectively, at higher Reynolds number (i.e., 17,500). But, frictional penalty through the model-5, model-4, model-3, and model-2 increased by 287%, 54%, 18%, and 12%, respectively, in comparison to model-1 at lower Reynolds number (i.e., 3600).

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Heat and Mass Transfer

J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(12):122001-122001-10. doi:10.1115/1.4041186.

The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuator, in which electrodes are asymmetric arranged, has already demonstrated its ability in flow control. In the present work, the configuration of DBD plasma actuator defined as DBD-vortex generator (VGs), which can induce streamwise vortices, has been employed in the flow control of the inclined jet in crossflow. The coherent turbulent structures around the cooling hole are examined by the large eddy simulation (LES) method with the improved plasma model. The mechanism of coherent structure controlled by the DBD-VGs is also elucidated in the processes of parametric study with the actuation conditions. The calculation results show that the DBD-VGs provides us an effective approach to further enhance the performance of the film cooling. When it is applied into the flow, symmetrical streamwise vortices are induced to break down the coherent vortex structure, leading to more coolant gathered on the surface, especially at the lateral area of the coolant jet. What is more, an overall improvement of the film cooling performance can be obtained when the actuation strength is strong enough.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(12):122002-122002-9. doi:10.1115/1.4041419.

In this paper, a non-Fourier model of heat conduction and moisture diffusion coupling is proposed. We study a hygrothermal elastic problem within the framework of time-fractional calculus theory for a centrally symmetric sphere subjected to physical heat and moisture flux at its surface. Analytic expressions for transient response of temperature change, moisture distribution, displacement, and stress components in the sphere are obtained for heat/moisture flux pulse and constant heat/moisture flux at the sphere's surface, respectively, by using the integral transform method. Numerical results are calculated and the effects of fractional order on temperature field, moisture distribution, and hygrothermal stress components are illustrated graphically. Subdiffusive and super-diffusive transport coupling behavior as well as wave-like behavior are shown. When fractional-order derivative reduces to first-order derivative, the usual heat and moisture coupling is recovered, which obeys Fourier heat conduction and Fick's moisture diffusion.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Jets, Wakes, and Impingment Cooling

J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(12):122201-122201-11. doi:10.1115/1.4041047.

This paper presents a numerical investigation of the film-cooling performance of a kind of diffusion hole with a fusiform cross section. Relative to the rectangular diffusion hole, the up- and/or downstream wall of the fusiform diffusion hole is outer convex. Under the same metering section area, six fusiform diffusion holes were divided into two groups with cross-sectional widths of W = 1.7D and W = 2.0D, respectively. Three fusiform cross section shapes in each group included only downstream wall outer convex, only upstream wall outer convex, or a combination of both. Simulations were performed in a flat plate model using a 3D steady computational fluid dynamics method under an engine-representative condition. The simulation results showed that the fusiform diffusion hole with only an outer convex upstream wall migrates the coolant laterally toward the hole centerline, and then forms or enhances a tripeak effectiveness pattern. Conversely, the fusiform diffusion hole with an outer convex downstream wall intensely expands the coolant to the hole two sides, and results in a bipeak effectiveness pattern, regardless of the upstream wall shape. Compared with the rectangular diffusion holes, the fusiform diffusion holes with only an upstream wall outer convex significantly increase the overall effectiveness at high blowing ratios. The increased magnitude is approximately 20% for the hole of W = 1.7D at M = 2.5. Besides, the fusiform diffusion holes with an outer convex upstream wall increase the discharge coefficient about 5%, within the moderate to high blowing ratio range.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(12):122202-122202-11. doi:10.1115/1.4041183.

A series of tests were performed for the pulsating jet impingement heat transfer by varying the Reynolds number (5000 ≤ Re ≤ 20,000), operation frequency (10 Hz ≤ f ≤ 25 Hz), and dimensionless nozzle-to-surface distance (1≤H/d≤8) while fixing the duty cycle (DC) = 0.5(280 measurement data in total). Specific attention was paid to examine the relationship between the pulsating jet impingement and the steady jet impingement. By using a modified Strouhal number (Sr(H/d)), the test data are analyzed according to three classifications of the enhancement factors a = Nupulsation jet/Nusteady jet (such as a ∈ (Min,0.899), a ∈ (0.95, 1.049) and a ∈ (1.1, Max)). The results show that the identification of pulsating jet impingement in related to the steady jet impingement is suitable by using the modified Strouhal number (Sr(H/d)). Within the scope of this study, the most possibilities for the heat transfer enhancement by using pulsating jet impingement are suggested as the following conditions: Re ≤ 7500 and Sr(H/d) ≥ 0.04, Re ≥ 17500, and 0.01 ≤ Sr(H/d) ≤ 0.03; 10 Hz ≤ f ≤ 20 Hz and Sr(H/d) ≥ 0.04; H/d ≥ 6 and most of current Sr(H/d). While under such conditions, 7500 ≤ Re ≤ 15,000 and Sr(H/d) ≤ 0.02; f ≥ 20 Hz and Sr(H/d) ≤ 0.04; H/d ≤ 2 and Sr(H/d) ≤ 0.02, the pulsating jet impingement makes the heat transfer weaker than the steady jet impingement more obviously.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Melting and Solidification

J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(12):122301-122301-9. doi:10.1115/1.4040955.

To identify the transient and distributed internal surface heat flux of the slab mold in continuous casting process, a fuzzy inference method is proposed in this work. For temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of the internal surface heat flux of continuous casting mold, a decentralized fuzzy inference (DFI) identification scheme possessed of a decoupling characteristic in time and space is established. For each temperature measurement point, the fuzzy inference processes are, respectively, executed from the correspondingly observed temperature sequence through corresponding DFI units. In the time domain, according to sensitivity coefficients, the weighing and synthesizing processes for the decentralized inference results are performed to get the temporal compensation vector for the internal surface heat flux of mold. Then, in the space domain, according to the normal distribution function, the weighing and synthesizing processes for the temporal compensation vectors are performed to get the spatial compensation vector for the internal surface heat flux of mold. Numerical tests are carried out to research the influence of the number of thermocouples and measurement errors on the identification results, which prove the effectiveness of proposed scheme in this work.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Micro/Nanoscale Heat Transfer

J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(12):122401-122401-13. doi:10.1115/1.4040956.

An experimental study is performed to investigate water flow and heat transfer characteristics in silicon micro-pin-fin heat sinks with various pin–fin configurations and a conventional microchannel, with a length of 25 mm, a width of 2.4 mm, and a height of 0.11 mm. The micro-pin-fin heat sinks have different fin arrangements, fin shapes, and fin pitches. The results show that the micro-pin-fin heat sinks have the better overall thermal-hydraulic performance including the heat transfer enhancement and the pressure drop penalty compared to the conventional microchannel. A parametric study is carried out to investigate the effects of various pin-fin configurations on the flow and heat transfer characteristics. The linear relationship between fRe and Re is found for the water flow through the micro-pin-fin heat sinks for the first time. A new friction factor correlation is further developed based on the linear relationship between fRe and Re. Taking the effects of the various pin-fin configurations on the Nusselt number into consideration, a new Nusselt number correlation is also developed. The new correlations of friction factor and Nusselt number predict the experimental data well. An infrared thermo-imaging system was used to measure the temperature field of water heat transfer in the micro-pin-fin heat sinks and the conventional microchannel. The infrared thermo-images show the more uniform temperature profile in the transverse direction for the micro-pin-fin heat sinks than that for the conventional microchannel, which indicates the better heat transfer performance of the former than the latter. The dominant mechanism of heat transfer enhancement caused by the micro-pin-fins is the hydrodynamic effects, including fluid disturbance as well as the breakage and re-initialization of the thermal boundary layer near the wall of the heat sinks.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(12):122402-122402-15. doi:10.1115/1.4041049.

Microrib is a very promising heat transfer enhancement method for the design of scramjet regenerative cooling channels. In this paper, a three-dimensional numerical model has been built and validated to parametrically investigate the thermal behavior of transcritical n-Decane in mini cooling channels with microribs under near critical pressure. The results have shown that the height and pitch of microrib perform a nonmonotonic effect on the convective heat transfer coefficient of n-Decane inside the cooling channel and the optimal microrib parameters stay at low values due to dramatic changes of coolant thermophysical properties in the near critical region. Due to severe thermal stratification and near critical conditions, there will be a significant recirculation zone in vertical direction near microrib, and its interaction with the strong secondary flow in axial direction caused by limited channel width of mini-channel will largely enhance the local convective heat transfer and its downstream region. Besides, the dramatically changing thermophysical properties of n-Decane will lead to a locally remarkable heat transfer enhancement phenomenon similar to impingement cooling at the front edge of microribs.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(12):122403-122403-9. doi:10.1115/1.4041189.

The hydrodynamic and thermal characteristics of electroosmotic and pressure-driven flows of power-law fluids are examined in a semicircular microchannel under the constant wall heat flux condition. For sufficiently large values of the electrokinetic radius, the Debye length is thin; the active flow within the electric double layer (EDL) drags the rest of the liquid due to frictional forces arising from the fluid viscosity, and consequently a plug-like velocity profile is attained. The velocity ratio can affect the pure electrokinetic flow as well as the flow rate depending on the applied pressure gradient direction. Since the effective viscosity of shear-thinning fluids near the wall is quite small compared to the shear-thickening fluids, the former exhibits higher dimensionless velocities than the later close to the wall; the reverse is true at the middle section. Poiseuille number increases with increasing the flow behavior index and/or the electrokinetic radius. Due to the comparatively stronger axial advection and radial diffusion in shear-thinning fluids, better temperature uniformity is achieved in the channel. Reduction of Nusselt number continues as far as the fully developed region where it remains unchanged; as the electrokinetic radius tends to infinity, Nusselt number approaches a particular value (not depending on the flow behavior index).

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Natural and Mixed Convection

J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(12):122501-122501-9. doi:10.1115/1.4041048.

It is a common practice to use ideal thermal boundary conditions to investigate natural convection. These correspond to very good conducting walls and to very bad conducting walls. In particular, this has been the case in natural convection of viscoelastic fluids. In this paper, these conditions are generalized by taking into account the finite thermal conductivities and thicknesses of the walls in the natural convection of a viscoelastic Jeffreys fluid heated from below. The goal is to present more realistic results related to experimental conditions. The critical Rayleigh number Rc, the frequency of oscillation ωc, and the wavenumber kc have been plotted varying the properties of the walls from the case of very good thermal conductivity to very poor thermal conductivity. In order to understand the convective phenomena, two parameters are fixed and the other one varied among the nondimensional relaxation time F, the relative retardation time E, and the Prandtl number Pr of the viscoelastic fluid. The role of the relative retardation time E on the thermal instability is discussed in detail.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(12):122502-122502-10. doi:10.1115/1.4039585.

High pressure/high temperature forced and mixed convection experiments have been performed with helium and nitrogen at temperatures and pressures up to 893 K and 64 bar, respectively. The test section had a 16.8 mm ID flow channel in a 108 mm OD graphite column. Flow regimes included turbulent, transitional, and laminar flows with the inlet Reynolds numbers ranging from 1500 to 15,000. Due to strong heating, the local Reynolds number decreased by up to 50% over the 2.7 m test section. In addition, heat transfer degradation and flow laminarization caused by intense heating led to Nusselt numbers 20–50% lower than the values given by the modified Dittus–Boelter and modified Gnielinski correlations. Flow laminarization criteria were considered based on a dimensionless acceleration parameter (Kv) and buoyancy parameter (Bo*). Upward turbulent flows displayed higher wall temperatures than downward flows, due to the impact of flow laminarization which is not expected to affect buoyancy-opposed flows. Laminar Reynolds number flows presented an opposite behavior due to the enhancement of heat transfer for buoyancy-aided flows. At low Reynolds numbers, downward flows displayed higher and lower wall temperatures in the upstream and downstream regions, respectively, than the upward flow cases. In the entrance region of downward flows, convection heat transfer was reduced due to buoyancy leading to higher wall temperatures, while in the downstream region, buoyancy-induced mixing caused higher convection heat transfer and lower wall temperatures.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Thermal Systems

J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(12):122801-122801-8. doi:10.1115/1.4041188.

The feasibility of the parameter estimation on the basis of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) for a practical simulation involving model errors was investigated. The three-dimensional flow and thermal simulations for the engine compartment of a test excavator were simulated, and several unknown temperatures used for boundary conditions were estimated with the method. The estimation method was validated in two steps. First, the estimation method was tested with the influence of the model errors removed by virtually creating true values with a simulation. These results showed that the proposed parameter-estimation method can successfully estimate surface temperatures. They also suggested that the appropriate ensemble size can be evaluated from the number of unknown parameters. Second, the estimation method was tested under a practical condition including model errors by using actual measurement data. Model errors were statistically estimated using prior obtained error data concerning other design configurations, and they were added to the observation error in the EnKF. These results showed that taking model errors into account in the EnKF provides more-accurate parameter-estimation results. Moreover, the uncertainty of an estimated parameter can be evaluated with the standard deviation of its distribution.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Technical Brief

J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(12):124501-124501-5. doi:10.1115/1.4040953.

X-ray sources are used for both scientific instrumentation and inspection applications. In X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), aluminum Kα X-rays are generated through electron beam irradiation of a copper-based X-ray anode incorporating a thin surface layer of aluminum. The maximum power operation of the X-ray anode is limited by the relatively low melting point of the aluminum. Hence, optimization of the materials and design of the X-ray anode to transfer heat away from the aluminum thin film is key to maximizing performance. Finite element analysis (FEA) has been employed to model the heat transfer of a water-cooled copper-based X-ray anode with and without the use of a chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond heat spreader. The modeling approach was to construct a representative baseline model, and then to vary different parameters systematically, solving for a steady-state thermal condition, and observing the effect on the maximum temperature attained. The model indicates that a CVD diamond heat spreader (with isotropic thermal properties) brazed into the copper body reduces the maximum temperature in the 4 μm aluminum layer from 613 °C to 301 °C. Introducing realistic anisotropy and inhomogeneity in the thermal conductivity (TC) of the CVD diamond has no significant effect on heat transfer if the aluminum film is on the CVD diamond growth face (with the highest TC). However, if the aluminum layer is on the CVD diamond nucleation face (with the lowest TC), the maximum temperature is 575 °C. Implications for anode design are discussed.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(12):124502-124502-4. doi:10.1115/1.4041184.

This short brief is to address the boundary layer flow of motion due to a rotating as well as stretchable/shrinkable flexible cone in an otherwise still fluid. It is shown that the relevant information on the progress of the triggered boundary layer structure can be obtainable from the limiting traditional deformable rotating disk flow of von Karman, recently published in the literature. Thus, the physical parameters of great interest from the engineering point of view concerning a cone of a particular apex angle can be easily deduced as a multiplying factor corresponding to the deformable rotating disk flow.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;140(12):124503-124503-4. doi:10.1115/1.4041324.

The efficiency of industrial heat equipment can be increased using baffles. The shape of baffles is one of the effective parameters. In this work, the effect of shapes of asymmetric baffles on the thermal performance has been investigated. Four different shapes as rectangular diagonal, trapezoidal, triangular and semi-ellipsoid, as well as, vertical rectangle (as the base model) were used. Also, four non-Newtonian fluids were used as the working fluid. The governing equation, which models the physical phenomenon, was solved with the finite volume method. The results showed that better thermal performance could be observed with semi-ellipsoid baffle for all four non-Newtonian fluids. However, for different models of non-Newtonian fluids, the average of increasing of thermal performance with different percent was achieved. By comparing different models of non-Newtonian fluids, shear-thinning model shows better thermal performance than other models.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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