Research Papers: Evaporation, Boiling, and Condensation

J. Heat Transfer. 2018;141(1):011501-011501-9. doi:10.1115/1.4041323.

Evaporation of layers of aqueous solutions of salts (LiBr, CaCl2, NaCl, MgCl2, BaCl2, and CsCl) is studied experimentally. Experimental data are compared with evaporation of the water layer. The solution is placed on a horizontal surface of a cylindrical heating section. Experiments on surface crystallization of salts are carried out. For aqueous solutions of salts LiBr, LiCl, and CaCl2, there is an extremum for the heat transfer coefficient αl. For water and for solutions of salts NaCl and CsCl, the extremum is absent. The first factor is a decreasing function of time, and the second factor is an increasing function of time. For the water layer, both factors continuously increase with time, and the maximum evaporation rate corresponds to the final stage of evaporation. The heat balance for interface layer is made up. The role of the free gas convection in the heat balance strongly depends on the salt concentration and varies with the rise of evaporation time. For low salt concentrations the influence of free convection in the gas phase on heat transfer in the liquid phase can be neglected; however, for high concentrations this effect is comparable with other factors. The curves for the rate of crystallization have been built. More than two time differences between the experiment and the calculation are associated with the kinetics of dendritic structures.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;141(1):011502-011502-12. doi:10.1115/1.4041556.

The optical techniques (particle image velocimetry (PIV), laser-induced phosphorescence (LIP), planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF)) are used to study unsteady and inhomogeneous temperature and velocity fields of a gas–vapor mixture forming in the immediate vicinity of rapidly evaporating water droplets. Experiments involve various arrangements of several (two, three, and five) water droplets in a heated air flow. We establish the dependencies of the temperature and velocity of a gas–vapor mixture in the trace of each droplet on the heating time, velocity and temperature of the air flow, initial dimensions, and droplet arrangement scheme. Distinctive features of the synergistic effect of a droplet group on their temperature and aerodynamic traces are identified. Longitudinal and transversal dimensions of the aerodynamic and thermal traces of evaporating droplets are established. The length of the temperature trace of one droplet equals 10–12 of its radii, and the width of the temperature and aerodynamic trace of a droplet is no larger than its diameter.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;141(1):011503-011503-11. doi:10.1115/1.4041557.

Saturation of the water vapor is essential to form frost inside a permeable membrane. The main goal of this paper is to develop a numerical model that can predict temperature and humidity inside a membrane in order to show the location and time of saturation. This numerical model for heat and mass transfer is developed to show that frost formation may be prevented or delayed by controlling the moisture transfer through the membrane, which is the new approach in this paper. The idea is to simultaneously dry and cool air to avoid saturation conditions and thereby eliminate condensation and frosting in the membrane. Results show that saturation usually occurs on side of the membrane with the highest temperature and humidity. The numerical model is verified with experimental data and used to show that moisture transfer through the membrane can delay or prevent frost formation.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;141(1):011504-011504-13. doi:10.1115/1.4041798.

In the present study, level set method is used to simulate the entire boiling curve in a temperature-controlled mode spanning all the three regimes viz., nucleate, transition, and film boiling with a unified numerical model supplemented with correlations specifying nucleation site density and waiting time between successive nucleations. In order to improve the performance of the code, parallel computing has also been implemented. Vapor evolution process along with temporal- and spatial-averaged wall heat flux and wall void fraction are computed for a uniform wall superheat case. Wall void fraction is found to increase with increase in wall superheat nonlinearly as different regimes of boiling were traversed. Energy partitioning from wall into liquid, interface, and microlayer has also been examined where it is found that as the wall void fraction increases, the percent energy going into liquid decreases while the microlayer contribution peaks around critical heat flux (CHF). Numerical simulations are carried out in 3D with water as test liquid and contact angle of 38 deg.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Forced Convection

J. Heat Transfer. 2018;141(1):011701-011701-11. doi:10.1115/1.4041552.

A new chemical model in the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) algorithm, entitled modified collision energy (MCE), has been developed for simulation of reactive rarefied flows without some limitations of the conventional macroscopic models. Determination of correct values of the experimental parameters for computing the Arrhenius reaction rate is a serious challenge in some macroscopic chemical reaction models such as total collision energy (TCE) and general collision energy (GCE). A slight variation of these constant parameters in the Arrhenius relation could lead to significant change in the results. On the other hand, these experimental parameters have been extracted empirically only for limit number of gases and so they cannot be used for simulation of chemical reactions in various types of gases. Since some of these constants have been determined experimentally by several studies, they have been reported by different values in different references. The proposed MCE model in the present study is a reliable method to properly determine values of these parameters for all types of gases with the intrinsic properties of the particles and without need of any experimental data. Extraction of the constant parameters has been carried out using the analytical method or numerical quantum kinetics (QK) or modified quantum kinetics (MQK) models. The proposed MCE method has been evaluated in four test cases, including assessment of the reaction rate in equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions, studying of the rarefied flow along the stagnation line, and investigation of the hypersonic gas flow over the axial symmetry blunt nose. The results show that the proposed method has desirable accuracy without use of any experimental parameters. The MCE method can also be used to calibrate the macroscopic reactive models such as the TCE and GCE.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Heat Exchangers

J. Heat Transfer. 2018;141(1):011801-011801-10. doi:10.1115/1.4041498.

In this paper, a particular heat exchanger is designed and analyzed by using second law of thermodynamics. The heat exchanger operates with the cross flow forced convection having cylindrical, square, and hexagonal pin fins (tubular router) placed in the rectangular duct. The pin fins are installed periodically at the top and bottom plates of the duct perpendicular to the flow direction, structured in-line, and staggered sheet layouts. The entropy generation in the flow domain of the channels is calculated to demonstrate the rate of irreversibilities. To obtain the efficiencies, irreversibility, thermal performance factor, and entropy generation number (EGN), the heat exchanger is operated at different temperatures and flow rates by using hot and cold fluids. Optimization of the design parameters and winglet geometry associated with the performance are determined by entropy generation minimization. The variation of the EGN with Reynolds number for various tubular routers is presented. The Reynolds number is determined according to the experimental plan and the performance is analyzed with the method of effectiveness—number of transfer unit (NTU). Based on particular designs, it was determined that the increment in fluid velocity enhances the heat transfer rate, which in turn decreases the heat transfer irreversibility.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;141(1):011802-011802-12. doi:10.1115/1.4041795.

Laminar forced convection heat transfer from a constant temperature tube wrapped fully or partially by a metal porous layer and subjected to a uniform air cross-flow is studied numerically. The main aim of this study is to consider the thermal performance of some innovative arrangements in which only certain parts of the tube are covered by metal foam. The combination of Navier–Stokes and Darcy–Brinkman–Forchheimer equations is applied to evaluate the flow field. Governing equations are solved using the finite volume SIMPLEC algorithm and the effects of key parameters such as Reynolds number, metal foam thermophysical properties, and porous layer thickness on the Nusselt number are investigated. The results show that using a tube which is fully wrapped by an external porous layer with high thermal conductivity, high Darcy number, and low drag coefficient, can provide a high heat transfer rate in the high Reynolds number laminar flow, increasing the Nusselt number almost as high as 16 times compared to a bare tube. The most important result of thisstudy is that by using some novel arrangements in which the tube is partially covered by the foam layer, the heat transfer rate can be increased at least 20% in comparison to the fully wrapped tube, while the weight and material usage can be considerably reduced.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Heat and Mass Transfer

J. Heat Transfer. 2018;141(1):012001-012001-8. doi:10.1115/1.4041539.

Thermally conductive soft composites are in high demand, and aligning the fill material is a potential method of enhancing their thermal performance. In particular, magnetic alignment of nickel particles has previously been demonstrated as an easy and effective way to improve directional thermal conductivity of such composites. However, the effect of compression on the thermal performance of these materials has not yet been investigated. This work investigates the thermal performance of magnetically aligned nickel fibers in a soft polymer matrix under compression. The fibers orient themselves in the direction of the applied magnetic field and align into columns, resulting in a 3× increase in directional thermal conductivity over unaligned composites at a volume fraction of 0.15. Nevertheless, these aligned fiber columns buckle under strain resulting in an increase in the composite thermal resistance. These results highlight potential pitfalls of magnetic filler alignment when designing soft composites for applications where strain is expected such as thermal management of electronics.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;141(1):012002-012002-10. doi:10.1115/1.4041558.

The feasibility of using a liquid metal with a high thermal conductivity as a functional fluid for realizing a variable conductance radiator (VCR) for space applications was proposed and investigated. The variable thermal conductivity of the radiator can be achieved by moving the liquid metal using a magneto-hydraulic pump between the two reservoirs in accordance with the temperature requirements of the on-board equipment. The liquid metal radiator proposed in this study is much more effective for saving heater power under cold condition while effectively dissipating heat to deep space under hot condition. The thermal behavior of the liquid metal radiator was demonstrated using the ambient thermal tests under cooling and insulation modes of the radiator. The performance of the proposed VCR was evaluated by comparing it with that of the conventional radiator whose conductivity value is fixed. The proposed radiator using the liquid metal was more effective than conventional radiator for suppressing the rate of increase of temperature for the heat dissipation unit in the cooling mode and for saving additional heater power by removing the liquid metal in the insulation mode.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;141(1):012003-012003-6. doi:10.1115/1.4041623.

Combustion characteristics at small scales have been studied continuously due to the potential applications in portable power devices. It is known that heat release impacts at small scales result in different flame behavior as compared to conventional scales. The impacts of geometry, stoichiometry, flow rates, wall temperatures, etc., are widely studied in the literature. However, dilution impacts still need to be further studied due to its important role on controlling the flame behavior and subsequent pollutants emissions at these scales. In this work, premixed hydrogen/air combustion is simulated at an axis-symmetric microchannel (with diameter D = 0.8 mm and length L = 10 mm), where detailed chemical kinetics are implemented in simulations (32 species and 173 reactions). The heat transfer on the wall is considered by imposing a hyperbolic temperature profile on the wall, where the wall temperature increases from 300 K at the inlet to 1300 K at the outlet. With this setup, a range of equivalence ratios including a typical fuel-lean regime (ϕ = 0.7), stoichiometric regime (ϕ = 1.0), and two cases at an ultra-rich regime (ϕ = 2.0 and ϕ = 3.0) are investigated. For each equivalence ratio, excess dilution (using N2) is introduced to the mixture, and its impact is compared with other cases. With that, the impacts of dilution variations on the combustion characteristics of premixed hydrogen/air are investigated for different equivalence ratios. More specifically, several incidents such as flame dynamics, flame stabilization, extinctions, and NOx emissions are studied for the aforementioned operating conditions.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;141(1):012004-012004-9. doi:10.1115/1.4041796.

The present paper investigates analytically the two-dimensional heat transfer and entropy generation characteristics of axisymmetric, incompressible viscous fluid flow in a horizontal circular pipe. The flow is subjected to an externally applied uniform suction across the wall in the normal direction and a constant magnetic field. Constant wall temperature is considered as the thermal boundary condition. The reduced Navier–Stokes equations in a cylindrical coordinate system are solved to obtain the velocity and temperature distributions. The velocity distributions are expressed in terms of stream function and the solution is obtained using the homotopy analysis method (HAM). Validation with earlier nonmagnetic solutions in the literature is incorporated. The effects of various parameters on axial and radial velocities, temperature, axial and radial entropy generation numbers, and axial and radial Bejan numbers are presented graphically and interpreted at length. Streamlines, isotherms, pressure, entropy generation number, and Bejan number contours are also visualized. Increasing magnetic body force parameter shifts the peak of the velocity curve near to the axis, whereas it accelerates the radial flow. The study is relevant to thermodynamic optimization of magnetic blood flows and electromagnetic industrial flows featuring heat transfer.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Micro/Nanoscale Heat Transfer

J. Heat Transfer. 2018;141(1):012401-012401-5. doi:10.1115/1.4040611.

Nanostructured semiconducting materials are promising candidates for thermoelectrics (TEs) due to their potential to suppress phonon transport while preserving electrical properties. Modeling phonon-boundary scattering in complex geometries is crucial for predicting materials with high conversion efficiency. However, the simultaneous presence of ballistic and diffusive phonons challenges the development of models that are both accurate and computationally tractable. Using the recently developed first-principles Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) approach, we investigate diffusive phonons in nanomaterials with wide mean-free-path (MFP) distributions. First, we derive the short MFP limit of the suppression function, showing that it does not necessarily recover the value predicted by standard diffusive transport, challenging previous assumptions. Second, we identify a Robin type boundary condition describing diffuse surfaces within Fourier's law, extending the validity of diffusive heat transport in terms of Knudsen numbers. Finally, we use this result to develop a hybrid Fourier/BTE approach to model realistic materials, obtaining good agreement with experiments. These results provide insight on thermal transport in materials that are within experimental reach and open opportunities for large-scale screening of nanostructured TE materials.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;141(1):012402-012402-10. doi:10.1115/1.4041497.

In this attempt, melting heat transfer characteristic of unsteady squeezed nanofluid flows in non-Darcy porous medium is interrogated. The nanofluid model incorporates Brownian diffusion and thermophoresis to characterize the heat and mass transport in the presence of thermal and solutal stratification. Similarity solutions are implemented to acquire nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations which are then evaluated using Homotopic technique. Flow behavior of involved physical parameters is examined and explanations are stated through graphs. We determine and analyze skin friction coefficient, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers through graphs. It is evident that larger melting parameter results in decrement in temperature field, while horizontal velocity enhances for higher melting parameter. Moreover, temperature and concentration fields are dominant for higher Brownian diffusion parameter.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;141(1):012403-012403-5. doi:10.1115/1.4041241.

Recent studies have shown that doping nanoparticles (NPs) into a molten salt eutectic can induce salt molecules to form a stelliform nanostructure that can enhance the effective heat capacity of the mixture. This phenomenon can result from a unique characteristic of a eutectic molten salt system, which can self-form a nanostructure on a nanoscale solid surface. Hence, such an enhancement was only observed in a molten salt eutectic. Similarly, a stelliform nanostructure can be artificially synthesized and dispersed in other liquids. Mixing polar-ended molecules with a NP in a medium can induce the polar-ended molecules ionically bonded to a NP to form a stelliform nanostructure. Hence, this may enhance the effective heat capacity of the mixture. In this study, we disperse various NPs and polar-ended materials into a sodium acetate trihydrate (SAT) at different ratios to explore the effect of NP type and concentration as well as polar-ended materials and their concentrations on the resultant heat capacity of SAT. The result shows that the specific heat capacity was the highest with silica NP at 1% concentration of weight and polar-ended material at 4% concentration.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;141(1):012404-012404-6. doi:10.1115/1.4041554.

The thermal conductivity of microfluids comprising Ni33-ppza)4Cl2 metal string complex (MSC) microparticles in an aqueous glycerol solution was investigated using the transient hot-wire method. A comparative analysis of the thermal-conductivity enhancements of microfluids and nanofluids revealed that the best results were achieved using microparticles of monocrystalline MSCs Ni33-ppza)4Cl2 as well as Ni55-pppmda)4Cl2 micro- and copper nanoparticles. Compared to the base fluid, the thermal-conductivity enhancements were 72% for Ni3–water–glycerol, 53% for Cu–water–glycerol, and 47% for Ni5–water–glycerol. It is shown that the high thermal-conductivity enhancement achieved with Ni3 microfluids is a result of higher stability in compare with nanofluid due to the lower density of the microparticles and the formation of particle assemblies. Therefore, the formation of hydrogen bonds between the MSC particles (through their organic fragments) and water molecules, takes place. Colloidal structure of Ni3-microfluids has a significant impact on their thermophysical properties.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;141(1):012405-012405-8. doi:10.1115/1.4041553.

This paper presents Darcy–Forchheimer three-dimensional (3D) flow of water-based carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with heterogeneous–homogeneous reactions. A bi-directional linear extendable surface has been employed to create the flow. Flow in porous space is represented by Darcy–Forchheimer expression. Heat transfer mechanism is explored through convective heating. Equal diffusion coefficients are considered for both autocatalyst and reactants. Results for single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) have been presented and compared. The diminishment of partial differential framework into nonlinear ordinary differential framework is made through suitable transformations. Optimal homotopy scheme is used for arrangements development of governing flow problem. Optimal homotopic solution expressions for velocities and temperature are studied through plots by considering various estimations of physical variables. The skin friction coefficients and local Nusselt number are analyzed through plots. Our findings depict that the skin friction coefficients and local Nusselt number are enhanced for larger values of the nanoparticles volume fraction.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;141(1):012406-012406-10. doi:10.1115/1.4041800.

The problem of boundary layer flow and heat transfer of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) nanofluids which consist of Fe3O4, Cu, Al2O3, and TiO2 nanoparticles and water as the base fluid past a bidirectional exponentially permeable stretching/shrinking sheet is studied numerically. The mathematical model of the nanofluid incorporates the effect of viscous dissipation in the energy equation. By employing a suitable similarity transformation, the conservative equations for mass, momentum, and energy are transformed into the ordinary differential equations. These equations are then numerically solved with the utilization of bvp4c function in matlab. The effects of the suction parameter, magnetic parameter, nanoparticle volume fraction parameter, Eckert number, Prandtl number, and temperature exponent parameter to the reduced skin friction coefficient as well as the local Nusselt number are graphically presented. Cu is found to be prominently good in the thermal conductivity. Nevertheless, higher concentration of nanoparticles leads to the deterioration of heat transfer rate. The present result negates the previous literature on thermal conductivity enhancement with the implementation of nanofluid. Stability analysis is conducted since dual solutions exist in this study, and conclusively, the first solution is found to be stable.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Natural and Mixed Convection

J. Heat Transfer. 2018;141(1):012501-012501-10. doi:10.1115/1.4040954.

Natural convection heat transfer from horizontal solid cylinders has been studied numerically by varying the Rayleigh number in the range of (104≤Ra≤108) and (1010Ra1013) for both laminar and turbulent flows, respectively. The computations were carried out for three different geometries of three, six, and ten cylinders in a stack arranged in a triangular manner having same characteristic length scale. The present numerical investigation on natural convention is able to capture a very interesting flow pattern and temperature field over the stack of horizontal cylinders which has never been reported in the literature so far. Visualization of plume structure over the horizontal cylinders has also been obtained pictorially in the present work. From the numerical results, it has been observed that the total heat transfer is marginally higher for three-cylinder stack in the laminar range. In contrast, for turbulent flow, starting from Ra = 1010, heat transfer for six-cylinder case is higher but when Ra exceeds 5 × 1011, heat transfer for ten cylinders stack is marginally higher. The average surface Nusselt number is higher for the stack of three cylinders compared to six- and ten-cylinder cases for all range of Ra in both laminar and turbulent regimes. A correlation for the average Nusselt number has also been developed as a function of Rayleigh number which may be useful for researchers and industrial purposes.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;141(1):012502-012502-18. doi:10.1115/1.4039915.

This work presents a study of double-diffusive free convection in a porous square cavity under turbulent flow regime and with aiding drive. The thermal nonequilibrium model was employed to analyze the energy and mass transport across the enclosure. Governing equations were time- and volume-averaged according to the double-decomposition concept. Analysis of a modified Lewis number, Lem, showed that for porous media, this parameter presents opposite behavior when varying the thermal conductivity ratio or the Schmidt number, while maintaining the same value for Lem. Differently form free flow, the existence of the porous matrix contributes to the overall thermal diffusivity of the medium, whereas mass diffusivity is only effective within the fluid phase for an inert medium. Results indicated that increasing Lem through an increase in Sc reduces flow circulation inside porous cavities, reducing Nuw and increasing Shw. Results further indicate that increasing the buoyancy ratio N promotes circulation within the porous cavity, leading to an increase in turbulence levels within the boundary layers. Partial contributions of each phase of the porous cavity (solid and fluid) to the overall average Nusselt number become independent of n for higher values of the thermal conductivity ratio, ks/kf. Further, for high values of ks/kf, the average Nusselt number drops as N increases.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Radiative Heat Transfer

J. Heat Transfer. 2018;141(1):012701-012701-7. doi:10.1115/1.4040958.

The statistical multiphase approach (MPA) proposed in the first part of this work to evaluate radiative properties of composite materials is applied to porous structures of opaque material and biological tissues. Radiative thermal conductivity is calculated for the bundle of circular rods, packed pebble beds, and metal foams. The results generally agree with the reference calculations by other methods. The small difference can be explained by different approaches to scattering and assumptions about the temperature distribution. Attenuation of light in skin tissues is calculated by the diffusion approximation. The attenuation coefficient generally agrees with the reference Monte Carlo simulation (MC). The difference observed at certain combination of parameters can be due to the assumption of regular arrangement of vessels at the MC simulation.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Technical Brief

J. Heat Transfer. 2018;141(1):014501-014501-6. doi:10.1115/1.4041555.

The recent development of flexible sensors that can measure temperatures at the surface of the skin opens novel possibilities for continuous health monitoring. Here, we investigate such sensors as 3ω thermometers to noninvasively detect deep dermal dehydration. Using numerical simulations, we calculate the temperature rise at the sensor at heating frequencies from 10 mHz to 10 Hz at varying levels of dehydration. The heating power in each case is limited to avoid burn injury. Our results indicate that 10–100 mHz frequencies are necessary to detect deep dermal dehydration. We show that the root-mean-square difference in temperature rise between normal and dermally dehydrated skin can be as high as 250 mK, which is detectable using lock-in techniques. Thermal contact resistance between the sensor and skin can dominate the signal when the resistance exceeds ∼10−3 Km2/W. This work provides quantitative limits for sensing human dehydration using noninvasive sensors that measure the thermal conductivity of the skin structure.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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