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Research Papers: Heat and Mass Transfer

J. Heat Transfer. 2018;141(2):022001-022001-9. doi:10.1115/1.4041802.

The rate of heat conduction (or mass transfer by diffusion) from a cylindrical or a spherical particle confined between two walls is determined as a function of the position and the radius of the particle. It is shown that the appropriate Green's function can be determined using the method of images even when the resulting series is divergent with the help of Shanks transformation. Asymptotic expansions for small particle radius compared to the distance between the walls are combined with the expressions for the case in which the gap between the particle and one of the walls is small compared to the particle radius to provide formulas that are surprisingly accurate for estimating the rate of heat transfer for the entire range of parameters that include the radius and the position of the particle. Results are also presented for the thermal dipole induced by a spherical or a cylindrical particle placed between two walls with unequal temperatures and these are used to predict the effective thermal conductivity of thin composite films containing spherical or cylindrical particles.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Micro/Nanoscale Heat Transfer

J. Heat Transfer. 2018;141(2):022401-022401-13. doi:10.1115/1.4040415.

The present research aims to examine the micropolar nanofluid flow of Casson fluid between two parallel plates in a rotating system with effects of thermal radiation. The influence of Hall current on the micropolar nanofluids have been taken into account. The fundamental leading equations are transformed to a system of nonlinear differential equations using appropriate similarity variables. An optimal and numerical tactic is used to get the solution of the problem. The convergence and comparison have been shown numerically. The impact of the Hall current, Brownian movement, and thermophoresis phenomena of Casson nanofluid have been mostly concentrated in this investigation. It is found that amassed Hall impact decreases the operative conductivity which intends to increase the velocity field. The temperature field enhances with larger values of Brownian motion thermophoresis effect. The impacts of the Skin friction coefficient, heat flux, and mass flux have been deliberate. The skin friction coefficient is observed to be larger for k=0, as compared to the case of k=0.5. Furthermore, for conception and visual demonstration, the embedded parameters have been deliberated graphically.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Natural and Mixed Convection

J. Heat Transfer. 2018;141(2):022501-022501-12. doi:10.1115/1.4039642.

Numerical simulations are carried out for fluid flow and natural convection heat transfer induced by a temperature difference between a hot inner cylinder with different geometries (i.e., circular; triangular; elliptic; rectangular; and rhombic) and a cold outer square enclosure filled with nanofluid superposed porous-nanofluid layers. The Darcy–Brinkman model is applied for the saturated porous layer with nanofluid. Moreover, the transport equations (mass, momentum, and energy) are solved numerically using the Galerkin weighted residual method by dividing the domain into two sets of equations for every layer with incorporating a nonuniform mesh size. The considered domains in this investigation are closely examined over a wide range of Rayleigh number (103 ≤ Ra ≤ 106), Darcy number (10−5 ≤ Da ≤ 10−1), the thickness of porous layer (0% ≤ Xp ≤ 100%), thermal conductivity ratio (1 ≤ Rk ≤ 20), and nanoparticle volume fraction (0 ≤ φ ≤ 0.1), respectively. The nanofluid is considered to be composed of Ag-nanoparticle and water as a base fluid. The results showed that the obtained total surfaces-averaged Nusselt numbers of the enclosure, in all cases, at the same operating conditions, the rate of heat transfer from the outer enclosure which the triangular cylinder is located inside is better. Also, as the thickness of the porous layer is increased from 20% to 80%, the free convection performance will decrease significantly (to about 50%) due to the hydrodynamic properties of the porous material.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Porous Media

J. Heat Transfer. 2018;141(2):022601-022601-8. doi:10.1115/1.4041707.

In this paper, heat transfer modeling of a high-temperature porous-medium filled solar thermochemical reactor for hydrogen and synthesis gas production is investigated. The numerical simulation is performed using a three-dimensional (3D) numerical model and surface-to-surface radiation model coupled to Rosseland approximation for radiation heat transfer. The effects of operating conditions and the porous structural parameters on the reactor thermal performance were investigated significantly. It was found that large axial temperature gradient and high-temperature distribution throughout the reactor were strongly dependent on the operating conditions. The inlet gas temperature has remarkable effects on the temperature distribution. The thermal performance of porous-medium filled solar thermochemical reactor could be improved by preheating the inlet gas up to 393.15 K. Moreover, a correlation was established between the protective gas inlet velocity and the porosity of porous media. The temperature difference decreased with the increase in the porosity of the inner cavity of the reactor. In contrast to the front and back parts of the inner cavity of the reactor, higher temperature distribution could be obtained in the porous region by increasing the average cell diameters of porous media.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Radiative Heat Transfer

J. Heat Transfer. 2018;141(2):022701-022701-8. doi:10.1115/1.4041803.

With today's computational capabilities, it has become possible to conduct line-by-line (LBL) accurate radiative heat transfer calculations in spectrally highly nongray combustion systems using the Monte Carlo method. In these calculations, wavenumbers carried by photon bundles must be determined in a statistically meaningful way. The wavenumbers for the emitting photons are found from a database, which tabulates wavenumber–random number relations for each species. In order to cover most conditions found in industrial practices, a database tabulating these relations for CO2, H2O, CO, CH4, C2H4, and soot is constructed to determine emission wavenumbers and absorption coefficients for mixtures at temperatures up to 3000 K and total pressures up to 80 bar. The accuracy of the database is tested by reconstructing absorption coefficient spectra from the tabulated database. One-dimensional test cases are used to validate the database against analytical LBL solutions. Sample calculations are also conducted for a luminous flame and a gas turbine combustion burner. The database is available from the author's website upon request.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Technical Brief

J. Heat Transfer. 2018;141(2):024501-024501-6. doi:10.1115/1.4041801.

An investigation is made to study the Blasius flow of a nanofluid in the presence of homogeneous–heterogeneous chemical reactions. Here, the diffusion coefficients of the reactant and autocatalyst are considered to be in comparable sizes. The Buongiorno's mathematical model is applied in describing the behavior of nanofluids. Multiple solutions of the steady-state system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations are obtained. Results show that nanofluids significantly participate in the transport mechanism of the homogeneous–heterogeneous reactions, which play different roles in the procedures of homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 2018;141(2):024502-024502-5. doi:10.1115/1.4041799.

In this paper, we briefly present the heat/momentum transfer analogies of Reynolds and the followers for turbulent flow. Next, we discuss differences between turbulent and laminar flow and turn to the Lévêque analogy for laminar flow. This enables heat transfer coefficients (Nusselt numbers) to be derived, based on the flow friction results that include only viscous friction. Some examples of Lévêque analogy applications, such as flow through packed beds, wire gauzes, short-channel structures (short monoliths), and structured catalyst carriers (tube inserts), are given. The Lévêque analogy gave satisfactory accuracy when compared to experiments with flow friction derived on the theoretical basis.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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