The worldwide increasing energy demand and 2050 net zero carbon target urge the globe to solve the energy challenge. Thermal Energy Storage (TES) has received significant attention in recent years as TES can be integrated into heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems where the energy would be stored during low-demand times and dispatched during high-demand times, resulting in controlling the peak load and improving energy savings. Material development is an integral part of TES. Salt hydrates are appealing due to cost-effectiveness, low- to no toxicity, and their high melting enthalpy, where energy is stored as latent heat. However, most salt hydrates are prone to incongruent melting (i.e., phase separation upon melting), which results in poor stability and large supercooling. In this study, we produced a highly stable novel energy storage material at a composition of 32 wt% sodium sulfate decahydrate, 52 wt% sodium phosphate dibasic dodecahydrate, 12 wt% milled expanded graphite, and 4 wt% borax. The material has a melting temperature of 28°C and an energy storage capacity of 167 kJ/kg with a supercooling of less than 3°C. The system showed no loss in energy storage performance after 150 cycles. The findings suggest that the novel energy storage material developed in this might be utilized in building heating and cooling applications.

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