The control of combustion is a key topic for diesel engine development in terms of performance and pollutant emissions. The combustion process is piloted through the proper injection strategy, which depends on the features of the injection system. Mechanical-hydraulic models of high-pressure injection systems often support the accurate tuning of the injection strategy.
The higher is the accuracy in the modeling of the electro-injector behavior, the deeper is the role of the simulation. Under such a viewpoint, the validation of the models is undoubtedly fundamental.
One of the most crucial information characterizing the injector relies on the measurement of the needle displacement. Needle displacement affects rate, timing and quantity of injected fuel; it also influences the flow features within the nozzle, which are then reflected by the primary atomization process.
Needle is considered hardly-accessible due to the injector architecture itself, making difficult the measurement of displacement. Nevertheless, the problem has been handled in different ways and three measurement techniques have been proposed. On one side, there is the measurement based on eddy-current transducers; on the other side, there are two alternative procedures, based on the use of optical sensors. However, in all cases, the needle is traced indirectly, since the position of the control plunger of the needle is observed.
The current contribution presents a novel experimental technique for the measurement of needle displacement.
The method is based on the direct visualization of the needle, allowing for the detailed definition of its law of motion through digital imaging, when the injector is characterized on a test-rig under transient conditions.
The paper describes the details of the diagnostic scheme, the experimental facility and the digital imaging set-up. The main features and the capabilities of the method are discussed, in comparison with the other available techniques.