Fiber-reinforcement of structures built with additive manufacturing (AM) has been the focus of many recent innovations in the AM space. These innovations have further enabled AM’s progress from a prototyping technology to a viable manufacturing process for end use parts under normal load conditions. This paper introduces a set of design principles to drive innovation and the creation of novel AM technologies capable of producing fiber-reinforced components. The principles were developed through a comprehensive survey of the literature and patents to identify fundamental design insights that made the published achievements and innovations possible. From the collected body of insights, 23 unique design principles are identified. These principles are formalized and organized within the framework of a matrix representation, connecting established fiber-reinforced composite guidelines to specific sub-functions of AM. Finally, a fiber-reinforced additive manufacturing machine is developed by employing a subset of the identified principles as a demonstration of their utility.