Research Papers: Natural and Mixed Convection

Experimental Heat Transfer From Heating Source Subjected to Rigorous Natural Convection Inside Enclosure and Cooled by Forced Nanofluid Flow

[+] Author and Article Information
Khaled Khodary Esmaeil

Mechanical Power Engineering Department,
Faculty of Engineering,
Tanta University,
Tanta 31527, Egypt;
Mechanical Engineering Department,
College of Engineering,
Qassim University,
Buraidah 51452, Saudi Arabia

Gamal I. Sultan

Mechanical Engineering Department,
College of Engineering,
Qassim University,
Buraidah 51452, Saudi Arabia;
Mechanical Power Engineering Department,
Faculty of Engineering,
Mansoura University,
Mansoura 35516, Egypt

Fahad A. Al-Mufadi, Radwan A. Almasri

Mechanical Engineering Department,
College of Engineering,
Qassim University,
Buraidah 51452, Saudi Arabia

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received March 3, 2018; final manuscript received April 24, 2019; published online May 20, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Antonio Barletta.

J. Heat Transfer 141(7), 072501 (May 20, 2019) (9 pages) Paper No: HT-18-1126; doi: 10.1115/1.4043673 History: Received March 03, 2018; Revised April 24, 2019

Mixed convection heat transfer characteristics from heat source located symmetrically inside square enclosure and cooled by Al2O3/water-based nanofluid flow was experimentally investigated. The configuration was subjected to high levels of natural convection and low rates of nanofluid flow. The nanofluid thermophysical properties were characterized using the available correlations in the literatures except the viscosity which was measured and correlated in terms of the nanoparticles loading ratios. Comparative analysis indicated that the application of nanofluid could not guarantee heat transfer enhancement in configurations dominated by natural convection. Exception heat transfer enhancement was only found when very low nanoparticles loading ratio was applied. Instead, heat transfer degradation was found especially in the cases of highest nanoparticles loading ratios. Alternatively, heat transfer enhancement was observed when the forced convection effect was substantial at the highest nanofluid flow rate. The present conclusions were justified and correlated to the findings reported in the literature.

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Fig. 1

Experimental test rig: (1) housing case, (2) base plate, (3) rectangular enclosure, (4) rectangular heat source, (5) insulating shroud, (6) thermocouples, (7) head exchanger, (8) fluid reservoir, (9) immersed pump, (10) regulation flow valve, (11) voltmeter, (12) ammeter, (13) autotransformer, (14) National Instrument data acquisition, and (15) disk top computer

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Fig. 2

Assembly of test section: (16) cooling working fluid, (17) ceramic core, (18) nickel–chromium wire, (19) mica-sheet, and (20) T-type thermocouples

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Fig. 3

Nanofluid effective thermal conductivity ratio

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Fig. 4

Validation results of viscosity measuring apparatus

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Fig. 5

Measured viscosity ratios for different weight fractions at different temperatures

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Fig. 6

Correlation for the viscosity ratio for different weight fractions

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Fig. 7

Nusselt number versus Richardson number for specific nanofluid flow rates and different nanoparticles loading ratios

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Fig. 8

Heat transfer coefficient versus nanoparticles loading ratios for specific heat flux intensity and different mass flow rates



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