Two-Phase Pressure Drop Across Vertically Mounted Thick Plate Restrictions

[+] Author and Article Information
J. O. Cermak, J. J. Jicha, R. G. Lightner

Nuclear Division, Martin Marietta Corporation, Baltimore, Md.

J. Heat Transfer 86(2), 227-238 (May 01, 1964) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3687107 History: Received April 10, 1963


The objective of this experimental study was to obtain two-phase (water-steam) flow pressure drop for thick-plate flow restrictions. Two-phase pressure drop data for uniformly heated tubular test sections were also obtained. A statistically designed program encompassing 536 runs was conducted employing 30-in. long test sections of six geometries. Two nozzle type, three thick-plate orifice type, and one straight expansion type flow restrictions were investigated. The ranges of parameters investigated were: Quality: 0–23 percent; Flow Rate: 500–1500 lb/hr; Pressure: 800–1600 psia; Tube Diameters: 0.416, 0.500 in. A complete factorial experimental design was employed which enabled an analysis of variance to be conducted to determine the significance of the flow rate, quality, and pressure on the response of the static pressure drop. Each of these factors was found to be highly significant. Inherent in the statistical methods employed was the establishment of the 95 percent confidence limits on the data for each test section studied. These limits ranged from 0.009 psi to 0.306 psi for the largest and smallest restriction diameters, respectively. The precision of the data was well within the limits for experimental two-phase flow technology. The results of an error analysis indicate that the accuracy with which flow rate, pressure, and geometry were determined gave rise to insignificant errors and the resulting maximum possible error in quality was less than the lower limit of the correlation equation confidence limits. The results of this study were compared with only moderate success to the theoretical models presented in the literature by Tippetts, Hoopes, and Mendler, et al. Several attempts at correlating the data resulted in a design equation to calculate the static pressure drop for the flow restrictions investigated. The form of the equation developed was:

ΔPs = Z ανG + 1 − ανF gg0
   + KνF2g0 GR 1 − x1 − α2

Copyright © 1964 by ASME
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