Three-Dimensional, Numerical Analysis of Laminar Natural Convection in a Confined Fluid Heated From Below

[+] Author and Article Information
H. Ozoe, H. Sayama

Department of Industrial and Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan

K. Yamamoto

Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe, Japan

S. W. Churchill

Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.

J. Heat Transfer 98(2), 202-207 (May 01, 1976) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3450519 History: Received November 13, 1975; Online August 11, 2010


An improved model and algorithm were developed for the numerical solution of three-dimensional, laminar natural convection in enclosures. Illustrative calculations were carried out for heating from below in a cubical box, a long channel with a square cross section and in the region between infinite, horizontal plates. The results are in good agreement with prior experimental and theoretical results. For the infinite flat plates the three-dimensional model correctly produces a two-dimensional solution. For the cube the solution produces different stable solutions depending on the initial conditions. A fluid-particle path is shown to be a good method of illustrating the three-dimensional motion. In the cube and in each cubical cell in the channel this streak-line was found to consist of a pair of double helices.

Copyright © 1976 by ASME
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