Comparison of the Rhine River and the Öresund Sea Water Fouling and Its Removal by Chlorination

[+] Author and Article Information
L. Novak

Alfa-Laval, Lund, Sweden

J. Heat Transfer 104(4), 663-669 (Nov 01, 1982) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3245183 History: Received October 07, 1981; Online October 20, 2009


Microbiological fouling is usually the main fouling mechanism occurring on heat transferring surfaces immersed in natural water of temperature between 5–50°C. The fouling rate of two natural waters—the Rhine river and the sea water of Öresund—has been studied. The dependence of fouling on flow rate and temperature is given. Chlorination is one of the most common biofouling control methods and it may be used for removal of already formed microbiological deposits. Tests performed on the Rhine water deposit are described and a mathematic description of the chlorination kinetics is presented. The dependence of biofilm destruction on flow rate, temperature, concentration, and operation conditions was examined.

Copyright © 1982 by ASME
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