Flammability Measurements of Difluoromethane

[+] Author and Article Information
W. L. Grosshandler, M. K. Donnelly, C. Womeldorf

Building and Fire Research Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899

J. Heat Transfer 122(1), 92-98 (Aug 11, 1999) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.521440 History: Received January 06, 1999; Revised August 11, 1999
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


ASTM E 681, 1994, “Standard Test Method for Concentration Limits of Flammability of Chemicals,” American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA.
Wu, C. K., and Law, C. K., 1985, “On the Determination of Laminar Flame Speeds From Stretched Flames,” Twentieth Symposium (International) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, pp. 1941–1949.
Law, C. K., Zhu, D. L., and Yu, G., 1986, “Propagation and Extinction of Stretched Premixed Flames,” Twenty-First Symposium (International) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, pp. 1419–1426.
Womeldorf,  C., and Grosshandler,  W., 1999, “Flame Extinction Limits in CH2F2/Air Mixtures,” Combust. Flame, 118, pp. 25–36.
Grosshandler, W., Donnelly, M., and Womeldorf, C., 1998, “Lean Flammability Limit as a Fundamental Refrigerant Property,” Final Technical Report, DOE/CE/23810-98, ARTI MCLR Project No. 660-52401, Mod. 3, Aug.
Dekleva,  T. W., Lindley,  A. A., and Powell,  P., 1993, “Flammability and Reactivity of Select HFCs and Mixtures,” ASHRAE Trans., 35, Dec., pp. 40–47.
Richard,  R. G., and Shankland,  I. R., 1992, “Flammability of Alternative Refrigerants,” ASHRAE Trans., 34, No. 4, pp. 20–24.
Wang,  C.-H., Ueng,  G.-J., and Tsay,  M.-S., 1998, “An Experimental Determination of the Laminar Burning Velocities and Extinction Stretch Rates of Benzene/Air Flames,” Combust. Flame, 113, pp. 242–248.
Maruta, K., Yoshida, M., Ju, Y., and Niioka, T., 1996, “Experimental Study on Methane-air Premixed Flame Extinction at Small Stretch Rates in Microgravity,” Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, pp. 1283–1289.
Ju,  Y., Guo,  H., Maruta,  K., and Niioka,  T., 1998, “Flame Bifurcations and Flammable Regions of Radiative Counterflow Premixed Flames With General Lewis Numbers,” Combust. Flame, 113, pp. 603–614.
Kobayashi,  H., and Kitano,  M., 1991, “Flow Fields and Extinction of Stretched Cylindrical Premixed Flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 75, pp. 227–239.
Sorhab,  S. H., Linan,  A., and Williams,  F. A., 1982, “The Asymptotic Theory of Diffusion Flame Extinction With Radiant Loss from the Flame Zone,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 27, p. 143.
T’ien,  J. S., 1986, “Diffusion Flame Extinction at Small Stretch Rates: The Mechanism of Radiative Loss,” Combust. Flame, 65, pp. 31–34.
Chung,  S. H., Chung,  D. H., Fu,  C., and Cho,  P., 1996, “Local Extinction Karlovitz Number for Premixed Flames,” Combust. Flame, 106, pp. 515–520.
Siegel, R., and Howell, J., 1981, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, 2nd Ed., Hemisphere Publishing Corp., New York, pp. 615–620.
Grosshandler, W., 1993, “RADCAL: A Narrow-Band Model for Radiation Calculations in a Combustion Environment,” NIST Technical Note 1402, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.
Hertzberg, M., 1976, “The Theory of Flammability Limits: Natural Convection,” Bureau of Mines Report of Investigation, RI-8127.
Hertzberg, M., 1980, “The Theory of Flammability Limits: Conductive-Convective Wall Losses and Thermal Quenching,” Bureau of Mines Report of Investigation, RI-8469.
Hertzberg, M., 1982, “The Theory of Flammability Limits: Radiative Losses and Selective Diffusional Demixing,” Bureau of Mines Report of Investigation, RI-8607.
Hertzberg, M., 1984, “The Theory of Flammability Limits: Flow Gradient Effects and Flame Stretch,” Bureau of Mines Report of Investigation, RI-8865.
Ju, Y., Masuya, G., and Ronney, P., 1998, “Effects of Radiative Emission and Absorption on the Propagation and Extinction of Premixed Gas Flames,” Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, pp. 2619–2626.
Grob, D., 1991, “Flammability Characteristics of R-32 and R-32 Mixtures,” Proceedings of the Symposium to Evaluate R-32 and R-32 Mixtures in Refrigeration Applications, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, Mar. 19–20.
Ohnishi, H., 1993, “Relationship Between Flammability and Composition Ratio of HFC-32/HFC-134a Blend,” Proceedings of the ASHRAE/NIST Refrigerants Conference: R-22/R-502 Alternatives, ASHRAE, Atlanta, GA.


Grahic Jump Location
Block diagram of counterflow burner experimental facility
Grahic Jump Location
Lean extinction mole fraction of CH2F2 in air as function of global stretch rate, comparing effect of humidity and initial temperature: solid symbols, Tdp=12°C; open symbols, dry
Grahic Jump Location
Extinguishing stretch limits of CH2F2 in air mixtures initially at 100°C and Tdp=12°C
Grahic Jump Location
Nonlinear extrapolation of CH2F2 extinction mole fraction to a zero-stretch flame



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In