TECHNICAL PAPERS: Heat Transfer in Manufacturing

Vaporization Kinetics During Pulsed Laser Heating of Liquid Hg

[+] Author and Article Information
T. D. Bennett, M. Farrelly

Department of Mechanical and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5070

J. Heat Transfer 122(2), 345-350 (Oct 07, 1999) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.521470 History: Received March 28, 1999; Revised October 07, 1999
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Kim,  H. S., and Helvajian,  H., 1991, “Threshold Level Laser Photoablation of Oxidized Aluminum (111)—Photoejected Ion Translational Energy Distributions,” J. Phys. Chem., 95, No. 17, pp. 6623–6627.
Hoheisel,  W., Vollmer,  M., and Trager,  F., 1993, “Desorption of Metal Atoms With Laser Light—Mechanistic Studies,” Phys. Rev. B, 48, No. 23, pp. 17,463–17,476.
Lee,  I., Callcott,  T. A., and Arakawa,  E. T., 1993, “Desorption Studies of Metal Atoms Using Laser-Induced Surface-Plasmon Excitation,” Phys. Rev. B, 47, No. 11, pp. 6661–6666.
Shea,  M. J., and Compton,  R. N., 1993, “Surface-Plasmon Ejection of Ag+ Ions From Laser Irradiation of a Roughened Silver Surface,” Phys. Rev. B, 47, No. 15, pp. 9967–9970.
Bennett,  T. D., Krajnovich,  D. J., and Grigoropoulos,  C. P., 1996, “Separating Thermal, Electronic, and Topographic Effects in Pulsed Laser Melting and Sputtering of Gold,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 76, No. 10, pp. 1659–1662.
Elam,  J. W., and Levy,  D. H., 1997, “Low Fluence Laser Sputtering of Gold at 532 nm,” J. Appl. Phys., 81, No. 1, pp. 539–541.
Kelly,  R., and Dreyfus,  R. W., 1988, “On the Effect of Knudsen-Layer Formation on Studies of Vaporization, Sputtering, and Desorption,” Surf. Sci., 198, No. 1–2, pp. 263–276.
Kelly,  R., and Dreyfus,  R. W., 1988, “Reconsidering the Mechanisms of Laser Sputtering With Knudsen-Layer Formation Taken Into Account,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B, 32, No. 1–4, pp. 341–348.
Ritchie,  R. H., Manson,  J. R., and Echenique,  P. M., 1994, “Surface-Plasmon-Ion Interaction in Laser Ablation of Ions from a Surface,” Phys. Rev. B, 49, No 4, pp. 2963–2966.
Pines,  D., 1956, “Collective Energy Losses in Solids,” Rev. Mod. Phys., 28, No. 3, pp. 184–198.
Lemberg,  H. L., Rice,  S. A., and Guidotti,  D., 1974, “Surface Plasmons in Liquid Mercury: Propagation in a Nonuniform Transition Layer,” Phys. Rev. B, 10, No. 10, pp. 4079–4099.
Bennett,  T. D., Grigoropoulos,  C. P., and Krajnovich,  D. J., 1995, “Near-Threshold Laser Sputtering of Gold,” J. Appl. Phys., 77, No. 2, pp. 849–864.
Ritchie,  R. H., 1973, “Surface Plasmons in Solids,” Surf. Sci., 34, pp. 1–19.
Levich, V. G., 1962, Physicochemical Hydrodynamics, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Krajnovich,  D. J., 1995, “Laser Sputtering of Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite At 248 Nm,” J. Chem. Phys., 102, No. 2, pp. 726–743.
Bennett, T. D., and Krajnovich, D. J., 1997, “Dynamics of Surface Melting During Laser Processing of Materials,” ASME Proceedings of the 32nd National Heat Transfer Conference; ASME, New York.
Touloukian, Y. S., 1970, Specific Heat: Metallic Elements and Alloys, IFI/Plenum, New York.
Touloukian, Y. S., 1970, Thermal Conductivity: Metallic Elements and Alloys, IFI/Plenum, New York.
Touloukian, Y. S., 1970, Thermal Expansion: Metallic Elements and Alloys, IFI/Plenum, New York.
Choyke,  W. J., Vosko,  S. H., and O’Keeffe,  T. W., 1971, “A Comparison of the Optical Properties of Single Crystal and Liquid Mercury in the Energy Range 0.5 to 8.25 eV,” Solid State Commun., 9, No. 6, pp. 361–367.
Zinov’yev, V. E., and V. P. Itkin, 1990, Metals at High Temperatures: Standard Handbook of Properties, Hemisphere, New York.
Iida, T., and Guthrie, R. I. L., 1993, The Physical Properties of Liquid Metals, Clarendon, Oxford.


Grahic Jump Location
Schematic of the major components in the TOF measurement system
Grahic Jump Location
Illustration of the liquid Hg crucible used in TOF measurements
Grahic Jump Location
Raw time-of-flights from liquid Hg. Distributions reflect 100-shot measurements. The five cases shown are for laser fluences of (a) 0.211, (b) 0.193, (c) 0.176, (d) 0.155, and (e) 0.135 J/cm2 .
Grahic Jump Location
Energy distributions of Hg corresponding to TOF measurements in Fig. 3. The distributions reflect the experimental measurements (○) as well as Boltzmann fits (—).
Grahic Jump Location
Thermal physical conditions near the liquid Hg surface at the peak of the thermal cycle (14 ns). Top panel: the temperature distribution; bottom panel: the density as a function of depth.
Grahic Jump Location
Peak surface temperature as a function of pulse fluence
Grahic Jump Location
Summary of measured mean translational energies versus calculated peak surface temperatures. The theoretical 2kBT relation for mean translational energy is plotted as a reference.
Grahic Jump Location
Natural log of integrated TOF signal versus the reciprocal of calculated peak surface temperature. The solid lines correspond to the anticipated slope of −Δh̄lv/R̄ for a thermal mediated process, with Δh̄lv=59.1 kJ/mol for Hg.



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In