A Cost-Based Strategy to Design Multiple Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

[+] Author and Article Information
Raquel D. Moita, Cristina Fernandes, Henrique A. Matos, Clemente P. Nunes

Departamento de Engenharia Quı́mica, Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal

J. Heat Transfer 126(1), 119-130 (Mar 10, 2004) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1643087 History: Received November 13, 2002; Revised September 08, 2003; Online March 10, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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Smith, R., 1995, Chemical Process Design, McGraw-Hill, New York, Chap. 7.
Ahmad,  S., Linnhoff,  B., and Smith,  R., 1988, “Design of Multipass Heat Exchangers: An Alternative Approach,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 110, pp. 304–309.
Shenoy, U. V., 1995, Heat Exchanger Network Synthesis—Process Optimization by Energy and Resources Analysis, Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, pp. 255–264, Chap. 6.
Gulyani,  B. B., 2000, “Estimating Number of Shells in Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers: A New Approach Based on Temperature Cross,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 122, pp. 566–571.
Wales,  R. E., 1981, “Mean Temperature Difference in Heat Exchangers,” Chem. Eng., 88(4), pp. 77–81.
Santos,  L. C., and Zemp,  R. J., 2000, “Energy and Capital Targets for Constrained Heat Exchanger Networks,” Braz. J. Chem. Eng., 17(4–7), pp. 659–669.
Floudas, C. A., 1995, Nonlinear and Mixed-Integer Optimization—Fundamentals and Applications, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, pp. 314–315.


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Inlet/outlet temperature situations corresponding to each design example: (1) Ex1 to (5) Ex5
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(a) 1-1 shell and tube exchanger with pure counter-current flow; (b) 1-2 shell and tube exchanger with partial counter-current and partial co-current flow
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Generic FT(R,P) chart and inlet/outlet temperature situations that can occur when using 1-2 heat exchangers: (1) Temperature approach; (2) Small temperature cross; (3) Large temperature cross
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Different criterions used to define the region of one shell or multiple shell heat exchangers: FT criterion (FT Minimum=0.75),XP criterion (XP=0.9), slope (∂FT/∂P)R approach (XPP) and slope (∂FT/∂Xp)R approach (XPC)
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Heat exchanger area and cost design algorithm (DeAl12)
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Design results for E1, E2, and E3 exchangers according to approaches Ap1 to Ap5. For each criterion, above its line one shell is used and below it multiple shells are required. (▵,○,□)—Infeasible points obtained with N=1; (▴,•,▪)—Design results
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Design results for E4, E5, E6, and E7 exchangers according to the approaches Ap1 to Ap5. For each criterion, above its line one shell is used and below it multiple shells are required.
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Approaches 1 and 2, with XP equal to XP1 and XP2, respectively, which lead to different values of the number of shells and area of the exchanger
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Effect of the area reduction fraction (ΔA/A1) in the cost difference value (ΔC), for different A1,N1,ΔN and cost law constant c illustrative values, with b=7 000
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Variation of the critical area reduction—(ΔA/A1)critical—with the cost law constant c and the number of shells N1, for ΔN=1
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Three situations that can occur due to the use of the different approaches 1 and 2, for ΔN=1 and b=7 000: (1) (ΔA/A1)critical>(ΔA/A1)max; (2) 0<(ΔA/A1)critical<(ΔA/A1)max; (3) (ΔA/A1)critical≤0
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Heat exchanger design situations that can occur with the approaches 1 and 2: (1) P≤PLimit 2; (2) PLimit 2<P≤PLimit 1; (3) P>PLimit 1
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XP variation with R for the constant XP criterions and constant slopes approaches presented in Table 1 of Sec. 4
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Strategy design algorithm (StratDeAl12), which minimizes the heat exchanger cost
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Location in the FT(R,P) chart of each design example (Ex1 to Ex5)



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