Technology Reviews

Titania Nanotubes: Novel Nanostructures for Improved Osseointegration

[+] Author and Article Information
Nathan Swami

Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4743

Zhanwu Cui

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030

Lakshmi S. Nair1

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030; Department of Chemical, Materials and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269nair@uchc.edu


Corresponding author.

J. Heat Transfer 133(3), 034002 (Nov 16, 2010) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4002465 History: Received July 07, 2009; Revised April 01, 2010; Published November 16, 2010; Online November 16, 2010

Nanostructured one dimensional titanium oxides such as nanotubes and nanowires have raised interest lately due to their unique electronic and optical properties. These materials also have shown significant potential as biomaterials because of their ability to modulate protein and cellular interactions. In this review, synthesis and modification of titania nanotubes have been discussed with emphasis on electrochemical synthesis and wet chemical synthesis and their heat treatment of resulting titania nanotubes. The biomedical applications of titania nanotubes were subsequently discussed in detail with a focus on osseointegration. The areas discussed are cell responses to titania nanotubes, effects of titania nanotubes on stem cell proliferation and differentiation, titania nanotubes as drug delivery vehicles, surface modification of titania nanotubes, and in vivo studies using titania nanotubes. It is concluded that the in vitro and in vivo study clearly demonstrates the efficacy of titania nanotube in enhancing osseointegration of orthopedic implants and much of the future work is expected to focus on improving implant functions by modulating the physical and chemical properties of the nanotubes and by locally delivering bioactive molecules in a sustained manner.

Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Topics: Nanotubes
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Figure 1

Titania nanotube structures synthesized in our laboratory. Left: top view of a sample anodized in 1M H2SO4+0.15M HF at 20 V; center: bottom/side view of a sample anodized in 0.5% NH4F in glycol ethylene at 30 V; right: top view close up of the sample at center.

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Figure 2

SEM micrographs showing osteoblast filopodia growth on (a) Ti surface (after 12 h) and (b) TiO2 nanotube surface (after 2 h) (reprinted with permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.) (42)



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