Research Papers: Forced Convection

Thermal Issues in Materials Processing

[+] Author and Article Information
Yogesh Jaluria

Honorary Fellow ASME
Board of Governors Professor
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Rutgers,
The State University of New Jersey,
Piscataway, NJ 08854
e-mail: jaluria@jove.rutgers.edu

Manuscript received October 15, 2012; final manuscript received January 7, 2013; published online May 16, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Leslie Phinney.

J. Heat Transfer 135(6), 061701 (May 16, 2013) (14 pages) Paper No: HT-12-1567; doi: 10.1115/1.4023586 History: Received October 15, 2012; Revised January 07, 2013

This paper considers the thermal aspects that frequently arise in practical materials processing systems. Important issues such as feasibility, product quality, and production rate have a thermal basis in many cases and are discussed. Complexities such as property variations, complex regions, combined transport mechanisms, chemical reactions, combined heat and mass transfer, and intricate boundary conditions are often encountered in the transport phenomena underlying important practical processes. The basic approaches that may be adopted in order to study such processes are discussed. The link between the basic thermal process and the resulting product is particularly critical in materials processing. The computational difficulties that result from the non-Newtonian behavior of the fluid, free surface flow, moving boundaries, and imposition of appropriate boundary conditions are important in several processes and are discussed. Some of the important techniques that have been developed to treat these problems are presented, along with typical results for a few important processes. Validation of the model is a particularly important aspect and is discussed in terms of existing results, as well as development of experimental arrangements to provide inputs for satisfactory validation. The importance of experimentation and linking the micro/nanoscale transport processes with conditions and systems at the macroscale are discussed. Future trends and research needs, particularly with respect to new materials and new processes, are also outlined.

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Fig. 1

Sketches of a few materials processing applications that involve significant thermal issues: (a) casting, (b) polymer single-screw extrusion, (c) optical fiber drawing, and (d) chemical vapor deposition

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Fig. 2

Variation of silica glass properties with dopant concentration and temperature (adapted from [10-12])

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Fig. 3

(a) Isotherms and temperature distributions in a single-screw polymer extruder [15]. (b) Viscous dissipation in the neck-down region of an optical fiber drawing process [16].

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Fig. 4

(a) Streamlines (1) and isotherms (2) for melting of gallium in an enclosed region, with the left vertical boundary at a temperature higher than melting point, the right vertical boundary at a temperature lower than melting point, and the remaining two boundaries insulated, at dimensionless time t following the onset of melting of t = 1.5622 and t = 1.9789. (b) Calculated streamlines in an impingement CVD reactor showing the effect of buoyancy in the center [18].

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Fig. 5

Landau's transformations to convert axisymmetric complex shapes to cylindrical ones

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Fig. 6

Single-screw extruder with two difference channel profiles. The coordinate system is located on the barrel and curvature effects are neglected for the mathematical model.

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Fig. 7

Comparison between numerical results and measurements for (a) a horizontal CVD reactor for silicon [36] and (b) melting of tin in an enclosure [18]

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Fig. 8

(a) Observed meniscus for different operating conditions in optical fiber coating and (b) calculations on the flow with a specified meniscus

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Fig. 9

Typical results on flow, temperature distribution, and deposition in a CVD reactor [36]

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Fig. 10

Dependence of the thermally induced E′ defects in optical fiber drawing on furnace temperature and dopant concentration [47]

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Fig. 11

Sketch of a fiber drawing furnace with an instrumented graphite rod at the center and the solution from an inverse problem to determine the furnace wall temperature distribution [50]

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Fig. 12

Calculated neck-down profiles in hollow fiber drawing for infeasible draw conditions and the feasibility domain [52]

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Fig. 13

Response surface for the percentage working area (PWA) and the optimal conditions in terms of susceptor temperature and average inlet flow velocity for an impingement CVD reactor for the deposition of silicon [36,54]

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Fig. 14

Optimization with deterministic and probabilistic constraints for normally distributed variables, indicating the optimization with variables with given uncertainties to achieve a specified level of reliability [36]



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