Research Papers: Heat Transfer Enhancement

Impact of Delta-Winglet Pair of Vortex Generators on the Thermal and Hydraulic Performance of a Triangular Channel Using Al2O3–Water Nanofluid

[+] Author and Article Information
Hamdi E. Ahmed

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
College of Engineering,
University of Anbar,
Anbar 31001, Iraq
Centre for Advanced Computational Engineering,
College of Engineering,
Universiti Tenaga Nasional,
Kajang 43000, Selangor, Malaysia
e-mail: hamdi_engi@yahoo.com

M. Z. Yusoff

Centre for Advanced Computational Engineering,
College of Engineering,
Universiti Tenaga Nasional,
Kajang 43000, Selangor, Malaysia

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received September 28, 2012; final manuscript received July 12, 2013; published online November 5, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Jose L. Lage.

J. Heat Transfer 136(2), 021901 (Nov 05, 2013) (9 pages) Paper No: HT-12-1529; doi: 10.1115/1.4025434 History: Received September 28, 2012; Revised July 12, 2013

This paper presents the laminar forced convection of Al2O3–water nanofluid in a triangular channel, subjected to a constant and uniform heat flux at the slant walls, using delta-winglet pair (DWP) of vortex generator which is numerically investigated in three dimensions. The governing equations of mass, momentum, and energy are solved using the finite volume method (FVM). The nanofluid properties are estimated as constant and temperature-dependent properties. The nanoparticle concentrations and diameters are in ranges of 1–4% and 25–85 nm, respectively. Different attack angles of vortex generators are examined which are 7 deg, 15 deg, 30 deg, and 45 deg with range of Reynolds number from 100 to 2000. The results show that the heat transfer coefficient is remarkable dependent on the attack angle of vortex generators and the volume fraction of nanoparticles. The heat transfer coefficient increases as the attack angle increases from 7 deg to 30 deg and then diminishes at 45 deg. The heat transfer rate remarkably depends on the nanoparticle concentration and diameter, attack angle of vortex generator and Reynolds number. An increase in the shear stress is found when attack angle, volume fraction, and Reynolds number increase.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Altemani, C. A. C., and Sparrow, E. M., 1980, “Turbulent Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in an Unsummertically Heated Triangular Duct,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 102, pp. 590–597. [CrossRef]
Depaiwa, N., Chompookham, T., and Promvonge, P., 2010, “Thermal Enhancement in a Solar Air Heater Channel Using Rectangular Winglet Vortex Generators,” International Conference on Energy and Sustainable development, pp. 1–7.
Kotcioğlu, Ă., Ayhan, T., Olgun, H., and Ayhan, B., 1998, “Heat Transfer and Flow Structure in a Rectangular Channel With Wing-Type Vortex Generator,” J. Eng. Environ. Sci., 22, pp. 185–195.
Shi, B., Wang, L., Gen, F., and Zhang, Y., 2006, “The Optimal Fin Spacing for Three-Row Flat Tube Bank Fin Mounted With Vortex Generators,” J. Heat Mass Transfer, 43, pp. 91–101. [CrossRef]
Wang, C., Lo, J., Lin, Y., and Liu, M., 2002, “Flow Visualization of Wave-Type Vortex Generators Having Inline Fin-Tube Arrangement,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 45, pp. 1933–1944. [CrossRef]
Saidur, R., Leong, K. Y., and Mohammad, H. A., 2011, “A Review on Applications and Challenges of Nanofluids,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 15, pp. 1646–1668. [CrossRef]
Biswas, G., and Chattopadhyay, H., 1992, “Heat Transfer in Channel With Built-in Wing-Type Vortex Generators,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 35(4), pp. 803–814. [CrossRef]
Zhu, J. X., Fiebig, M., and Mitra, N. K., 1995, “Numerical Investigation of Turbulent Flows and Heat Transfer in a Rib-Roughened Channel With Longitudinal Vortex Generators,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 38(3), pp. 495–501. [CrossRef]
Kaniewski, M., Hahne, H. W., and Mitra, N. K., 1997, “Mass Transfer Enhancement by Longitudinal Vortices,” J. Heat Mass Transfer, 32, pp. 163–166. [CrossRef]
Min, C., Qi, C., Kong, X., and Dong, J., 2010, “Experimental Study of Rectangular Channel With Modified Rectangular Longitudinal Vortex Generators,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 53, pp. 3023–3029. [CrossRef]
Rout, P. K., and Saha, S. K., 2013, “Laminar Flow Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in a Circular Tube Having Wire-Coil and Helical Screw-Tape Inserts,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 135(2), p. 021901. [CrossRef]
Qiuwang, W., Qiuyang, C., Ling, W., Min, Z., Yanping, H., and Zejun, X., 2007, “Experimental Study of Heat Transfer Enhancement in Narrow Rectangular Channel With Longitudinal Vortex Generators,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 237, pp. 686–693. [CrossRef]
Jian, M., Yan, P. H., Jun, H., Yan, L. W., and Qiu, W. W.2010, “Experimental Investigations on Single-Phase Heat Transfer Enhancement With Longitudinal Vortices in Narrow Rectangular Channel,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 240, pp. 92–102. [CrossRef]
Chao, L., Jyh-tong, T., Jian-Cherng, C., Yi-lang, C., Suyi, H., Shiping, J., Thanhtrung, D., Ralph, G., and Hsin-Hung, P., 2011, “Experimental Investigation on Liquid Flow and Heat Transfer in Rectangular Microchannel With Longitudinal Vortex Generators,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 54, pp. 3069–3080. [CrossRef]
Althaher, M. A., Abdul-Rassol, A. A., Ahmed, H. E. and Mohammed, H. A., 2012, “Turbulent Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Triangular Duct Using Delta-Winglet Vortex Generators,” Heat Transfer–Asian Res., 41(1), pp. 43–62. [CrossRef]
Luciu, R. S., Mateecsu, T., Cotorobai, V., and Mare, T., 2009, “Nusselt Number and Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient for a Coaxial Heat Exchanger using Al2O3–Water pH = 5 Nanofluid,” Bul. Inst. Polit. Iaşi, t. LV (LIX), f., 2, pp. 71–80. Available at: http://www.journaldatabase.org/articles/nusselt_number_convection_heat.html
Vasu, V., Krishna, K. R., and Kumar, A. C. S., 2008, “Application of Nanofluids in Thermal Design of Compact Heat Exchanger,” Int. J. Nanotechnol. Appl., 2(1), pp. 75–87. Available at: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/242312514_Application_of_Nanofluids_in_Thermal_Design_of_Compact_Heat_Exchanger
Bianco, V., Chiacchio, F., Manca, O., and Nardini, S., 2009, “Numerical Investigation of Nanofluids Forced Convection in Circular Tubes,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 29, pp. 3632–3642. [CrossRef]
Bianco, V., Manca, O., and Nardini, S., 2011, “Numerical Investigation on Nanofluids Turbulent Convection Heat Transfer inside a Circular Tube,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 50, pp. 341–349. [CrossRef]
Heris, S. Z., Esfahany, M. N., and Etemad, S. Gh., 2007, “Experimental Investigation of Convective Heat Transfer of Al2O3/Water Nanofluid in Circular Tube,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 28, pp. 203–210. [CrossRef]
Heris, S. Z., Noie, S. H., Talaii, E., and Sargolzaei, J., 2011, “Numerical Investigation of Al2O3/Water Nanofluid Laminar Convective Heat Transfer Through Triangular Ducts,” Nanoscale Res. Lett., 6, p. 179. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Heris, S.Z., Talaii, E., Noie, S. H., 2012, “CuO/Water Nanofluid Heat Transfer Through Triangular Ducts,” Iran. J. Chem. Eng., 9(1) 23–32.
Hwang, K. S., Jang, S. P., and Choi, S. U. S., 2009, “Flow and Convective Heat Transfer Characteristics of Water-Based Al2O3 Nanofluids in Fully Developed Laminar Flow Regime,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 52, pp. 193–199. [CrossRef]
Mapa, L. B., and Mazhar, S., 2005, “Heat Transfer in Mini Heat Exchanger Using Nanofluids,” Conference of American Society for Engineering Education, DeKalb, IL, Apr. 1–2, pp. 1–6.
Bianco, V., Chiacchio, F., Manca, O., and Nardini, S., 2009, “Numerical Investigation of Nanofluids Forced Convection in Circular Tubes,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 29, pp. 3632–3642. [CrossRef]
Labonté, J., Nguyen, C. T., and Roy, G., 2006, “Heat Transfer Enhancement in Laminar Flow Using Al2O3–Water Nanofluid Considering Temperature-Dependent Properties,” Proceedings of the 4th WSEAS International Conference on Heat Transfer, Thermal Engineering and Environment, Elounda, Greece, Aug. 21–23, pp. 331–336.
Palm, S. J., Roy, G., and Nguyen, C. T., 2006, “Heat Transfer Enhancement With the Use of Nanofluids in Radial Flow Cooling Systems Considering Temperature-Dependent Properties,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 26, pp. 2209–2218. [CrossRef]
Vajjha, R. S., Das, D. K., and Kulkarni, D. P., 2010, “Development of New Correlations for Convective Heat Transfer and Friction Factor in Turbulent Regime for Nanofluids,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 53, pp. 4607–4618. [CrossRef]
Koo, J., and Kleinstreuer, C., 2004, “A New Thermal Conductivity Model for Nanofluids,” J. Nanopart. Res., 6, pp. 577–588. [CrossRef]
Vajjha, R. S., and Das, D. K., 2009, “Experimental Determination of Thermal Conductivity of Three Nanofluids and Development of New Correlations,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 52, pp. 4675–4682. [CrossRef]
Pak, B. C., and Cho, Y. I., 1998, “Hydrodynamic and Heat Transfer Study of Dispersed Fluids With Submicron Metallic Oxide Particles,” Exp. Heat Transfer, 11(2), pp. 151–170. [CrossRef]
Xuan, Y., and Roetezl, W., 2000, “Concepts of Heat Transfer Correlation of Nanofluids,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 43, pp. 3701–3707. [CrossRef]
Lienhard, J. H., IV, and Lienhard, J. H. V, 2011, Heat Transfer Textbook, Phlogiston Press, Cambridge, MA, Appendix A.
Shah, R. K., and London, A. L., 1978, “Laminar Flow Forced Convection in Ducts,” A Source Book for compact Heat Exchanger Analytical Data, Academic Press, Inc., New York, Chap. VIII.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Longitudinal vortex generators types

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic diagram of triangular duct and vortex generator and (b) geometrical parameters of the vortex generator

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Comparison between the present average Nusselt number and the results of the literature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Local convection heat transfer coefficient of the nanofluid based on constant and variable properties of nanofluid at α = 15 deg and Re = 100 (a) ϕ = 1% and (b) ϕ = 4%

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Spanwise local Nusselt number affected by the nanoparticle concentration at α = 30 deg and Re = 2000

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Effect of the nanoparticle concentration on the average heat transfer coefficient at Re = 2000

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Streamlines contour for different nanofluid volume fraction at Z = 3.812, α = 30 deg, and Re = 100

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Effect of nanoparticles diameter for different values of Reynolds numbers

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Configurations of the vortex generator at (a) α = 7 deg, (b) α = 15 deg, (c) α = 30 deg, and (d) α = 45 deg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Effect of attack angle on the average convection heat transfer coefficient (a) Re = 2000 and (b) ϕ = 4%

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Effect of the attack angle of the VG on the wall shear stress for different values of volume fraction and at Re = 2000

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Effect of geometry change of the vortex generator on (a) heat transfer coefficient and (b) wall shear stress, α = 30 deg and ϕ = 4%

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Effect of Reynolds number on the average heat transfer coefficient at ϕ = 4%



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In