Research Papers: Electronic Cooling

An Open Loop Pulsating Heat Pipe for Integrated Electronic Cooling Applications

[+] Author and Article Information
Daniel Kearney

Power Electronic Integration,
ABB Switzerland AG,
5405 Baden-Dättwil,
Aargau, Switzerland
e-mail: daniel.kearney@ch.abb.com

Justin Griffin

Power Electronic Integration,
ABB Switzerland AG,
5405 Baden-Dättwil,
Aargau, Switzerland
e-mail: justin.scott.griffin@gmail.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received July 26, 2013; final manuscript received March 4, 2014; published online April 17, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Bruce L. Drolen.

J. Heat Transfer 136(8), 081401 (Apr 17, 2014) (7 pages) Paper No: HT-13-1372; doi: 10.1115/1.4027131 History: Received July 26, 2013; Revised March 04, 2014

Increasing trends toward integrated power electronic systems demand advancements in novel, efficient thermal management solutions to cope with the increasing the power density. This paper investigates the performance of a novel open loop pulsating heat pipe embedded in an FR4 organic substrate. The heat pipe is comprised of 26 parallel minichannels, 13 turns with an average hydraulic diameter of 1.7 mm and maximum surface roughness of 2.5 μm. The bulk thermal performance of three saturated working fluids—Novec 649, Novec 7200 and Ethanol (99.8%)—is investigated in terms of fill ratio, three angles of orientation, and applied heat fluxes ranging from 0.4 to 2.5 W/cm2 at subambient pressures. Novec 649 achieved quasi-stable pulsations at lower heat fluxes compared to Novec 7200 and Ethanol (99.8%). In addition, the dielectric Novec 649 fluid showed significant potential for integrated heat spreading applications demonstrating heat transfer of up to 176 W and thermal resistances as low as 0.25 °C/W for a filling ratio of 30%—16 times greater than that of a standard dry FR4 substrate

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Fig. 3

PCB with integrated OLPHP

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Fig. 2

Schematic of (a) an open looped heat pipe and (b) a closed loop heat pipe

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Fig. 1

Schematic of an integrated chip in a PCB substrate

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Fig. 7

Temperature difference between evaporator and condenser as a function of applied heat flux for ethanol, Novec 649 and Novec 7200 for FR = 70% and 90 deg orientation

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Fig. 4

(dp/dT)sat of various working fluids over a range of operating temperatures

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Fig. 5

Experimental setup

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Fig. 6

Exploded view of the test section

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Fig. 8

Temperature difference between evaporator and condenser as a function of applied heat flux for ethanol and Novec 649 at 90 deg orientation across a range of fill ratios

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Fig. 9

Temperature difference between evaporator and condenser as a function of applied heat flux for ethanol and Novec 649 for FR = 30% and varying orientation angle

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Fig. 10

Thermal resistance for Novec 649 at 90 deg orientation and three fill ratios



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