Research Papers: Micro/Nanoscale Heat Transfer

Quenching of a Heated Rod: Physical Phenomena, Heat Transfer, and Effect of Nanofluids

[+] Author and Article Information
Arnab Dasgupta

Reactor Engineering Division,
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre,
Mumbai 400085, India
e-mail: arnie@barc.gov.in

A. S. Chinchole

Reactor Engineering Division,
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre,
Mumbai 400085, India
e-mail: chinchole@barc.gov.in

P. P. Kulkarni

Reactor Engineering Division,
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre,
Mumbai 400085, India
e-mail: parimalk@barc.gov.in

D. K. Chandraker

Reactor Engineering Division,
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre,
Mumbai 400085, India
e-mail: dineshkc@barc.gov.in

A. K. Nayak

Reactor Engineering Division,
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre,
Mumbai 400085, India
e-mail: arunths@barc.gov.in

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received December 15, 2015; final manuscript received June 29, 2016; published online August 16, 2016. Assoc. Editor: P. K. Das.

J. Heat Transfer 138(12), 122401 (Aug 16, 2016) (7 pages) Paper No: HT-15-1790; doi: 10.1115/1.4034179 History: Received December 15, 2015; Revised June 29, 2016

The physical phenomena of rewetting and quenching are of prime importance in nuclear reactor safety in the event of a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). Generally, top spray or bottom flooding concepts are used in reactors. Numerical simulation of these processes entails the use of the concept of a rewetting velocity. However, heat transfer just before and after the rewetting front is often assumed in an ad hoc fashion. The present work aims to evaluate the surface heat flux during quenching as a function of surface temperature. The experiments presented herein are primarily applicable to the bottom flooding scenario with high flooding rate. In the experiments, a rod heated above Leidenfrost point is immersed in a pool of water. The surface temperature was recorded using a surface-mounted thermocouple. The surface heat flux was then determined numerically and hence can be related to a particular value of surface temperature. This type of data is useful for numerical simulations of quenching phenomena. In addition to this, high-speed photography was undertaken to visualize the phenomena taking place during the rewetting and quenching. Both subcooled and saturated water pools have been used and compared in the experiments. Surface finish was seen to influence rewetting process by a mechanism which here is termed as “transition boiling enhanced film boiling.” The effect of using nanofluids was also studied. No marked change is observed in the overall quenching time with nanofluids, however, the initial cooling is apparently faster.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


IAEA, 2001, “ General Film Boiling Heat Transfer Prediction Methods for Advanced Water Cooled Reactors,” Thermo-Hydraulic Relationships Advanced Water Cooled Reactors, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, Report No. IAEA-TECDOC-1203.
Kalinin, E. K. , Berlin, I. I. , and Kostiouk, V. V. , 1987, “ Transition Boiling Heat Transfer,” Adv. Heat Transfer, 18, pp. 241–323.
Chen, W. J. , Lee, Y. , and Groeneveld, D. C. , 1979, “ Measurement of Boiling Curves During Rewetting of a Hot Circular Duct,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 22(6), pp. 973–976. [CrossRef]
Zhang, J. , Tanaka, F. , Juarsa, M. , and Mishima, K. , 2003, “ Calculation of Boiling Curves During Rewetting of a Hot Vertical Narrow Channel,” NURETH-10, Seoul, Korea, Oct. 5–9. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Mulya_Juarsa/publication/237580530_Calculation_of_Boiling_Curves_During_Rewetting_of_a_Hot_Vertical_Narrow_Channel/links/0c96053746d261917a122401.pdf
Kim, H. , DeWitt, G. , McKrell, T. , Buongiorno, J. , and Hu, L. , 2009, “ On the Quenching of Steel and Zircaloy Spheres in Water-Based Nanofluids With Alumina, Silica and Diamond Nanoparticles,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 35(5), pp. 427–438. [CrossRef]
Kim, H. , Buongiorno, J. , Hu, L. , and McKrell, T. , 2009, “ Effect of Nanoparticle Deposition on Rewetting Temperature and Quench Velocity in Experiments With Stainless Steel Rodlets and Nanofluids,” ASME Paper No. ICNMM2009-82082.
Ciloglu, D. , and Bolukbasi, A. , 2011, “ The Quenching Behavior of Aqueous Nanofluids Around Rods With High Temperature,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 241(7), pp. 2519–2527. [CrossRef]
Walker, S. P. , Ilyas, M. , and Hewitt, G. F. , 2011, “ The Rewetting of PWR Fuel Cladding During Post-LOCA Reflood: A Proposed Physical Explanation for the Micro-Scale High-Frequency Sputtering Observed,” Proc. IMechE, Part A, 226(3), pp. 384–397. [CrossRef]
Vishnoi, A. K. , Chandraker, D. K. , Pal, A. K. , Dasgupta, A. , Vijayan, P. K. , and Saha, D. , 2010, “ Design and Development of 3 MW Power Rating Directly Heated 54-Rod Fuel Rod Cluster Simulator,” BARC News Letter, Mumbai, India, Report No. BARC/2010/R004.
Lee, Y. , and Shen, W.-Q. , 1987, “ Effect of Surface Roughness on the Rewetting Process,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 13(6), pp. 857–861. [CrossRef]
Bernardin, J. D. , and Mudawar, I. , 1999, “ The Leidenfrost Point: Experimental Study and Assessment of Existing Models,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 121(4), pp. 894–903. [CrossRef]
Nukiyama, S. , 1965, “ Maximum and Minimum Values of Heat q Transmitted From Metal to Boiling Water Under Atmospheric Pressure,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 9(12), pp. 1419–1433. [CrossRef]
Zuber, N. , 1958, “ On the Stability of Boiling Heat Transfer,” ASME Trans., 95, pp. 711–720. http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4326542
Berensen, P. J. , 1961, “ Film Boiling Heat Transfer for a Horizontal Surface,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 83(3), pp. 351–358. [CrossRef]
Ivey, H. J. , and Morris, D. J. , 1962, “ On the Relevance of the Vapor Liquid Exchange Mechanism for Subcooled Boiling Heat Transfer at High Pressure,” AEEW-R Report No. 137.
Putra, N. , Roetzel, W. , and Das, S. K. , 2003, “ Natural Convection of Nanofluids,” Heat Mass Transfer, 39(8), pp. 775–784. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Heat transfer mechanisms during reflooding, adapted from [1]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic of the experimental setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

(a) Radiograph of the heater and (b) assumed schematic for modeling

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Temperature versus time data during quenching in a saturated pool. Thermocouple location on the rod is shown as a dot.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Intermittent patches of wetting and reforming of film. Film boiling existing at (a) gives way to a patch of contact (b) which grows (c). (d) Contact ceases and film boiling is reinstated.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Transition boiling (a) near thermocouple location and (b) near bottom of the rod

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Temperature versus time data during quenching in a subcooled pool. Thermocouple location on the rod is shown as a dot.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Effect of nanofluid concentration on quenching: (a) quenching curve and (b) rate of cooling

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Surface heat flux in saturated pool

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Surface heat flux in subcooled pool

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Surface heat flux for (a) 0.01% Al2O3 and (b) 0.05% Al2O3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Water versus nanofluids on the surface heat flux versus surface temperature plot



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In