Research Papers: Evaporation, Boiling, and Condensation

Enhanced Macroconvection Mechanism With Separate Liquid–Vapor Pathways to Improve Pool Boiling Performance

[+] Author and Article Information
Satish G. Kandlikar

Fellow ASME
Mechanical Engineering Department,
Rochester Institute of Technology,
76 Lomb Memorial Drive,
Rochester, NY 14623
e-mail: sgkeme@rit.edu

Presented at the 2016 ASME 5th Micro/Nanoscale Heat & Mass Transfer International Conference. Paper No. MNHMT2016-6371.Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received May 10, 2016; final manuscript received September 19, 2016; published online February 7, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Robert D. Tzou.

J. Heat Transfer 139(5), 051501 (Feb 07, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: HT-16-1263; doi: 10.1115/1.4035247 History: Received May 10, 2016; Revised September 19, 2016

Understanding heat transfer mechanisms is crucial in developing new enhancement techniques in pool boiling. In this paper, the available literature on fundamental mechanisms and their role in some of the outstanding enhancement techniques is critically evaluated. Such an understanding is essential in our quest to extend the critical heat flux (CHF) while maintaining low wall superheats. A new heat transfer mechanism related to macroconvection is introduced and its ability to simultaneously enhance both CHF and heat transfer coefficient (HTC) is presented. In the earlier works, increasing nucleation site density by coating a porous layer, providing hierarchical multiscale structures with different surface energies, and nanoscale surface modifications were some of the widely used techniques which relied on enhancing transient conduction, microconvection, microlayer evaporation, or contact line evaporation mechanisms. The microconvection around a bubble is related to convection currents in its immediate vicinity, referred to as the influence region (within one to two times the departing bubble diameter). Bubble-induced convection, which is active beyond the influence region on a heater surface, is introduced in this paper as a new macroconvection mechanism. It results from the macroconvection currents created by the motion of bubbles as they grow and depart from the nucleating sites along a specific trajectory. Directing these bubble-induced macroconvection currents so as to create separate vapor–liquid pathways provides a highly effective enhancement mechanism, improving both CHF and HTC. The incoming liquid as well as the departing bubbles in some cases play a major role in enhancing the heat transfer. Significant performance improvements have been reported in the literature based on enhanced macroconvection contribution. One such microstructure has yielded a CHF of 420 W/cm2 with a wall superheat of only 1.7 °C in pool boiling with water at atmospheric pressure. Further enhancements that can be expected through geometrical refinements and integration of different techniques with macroconvection enhancement mechanism are discussed here.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Mosciki , and Broder, J. , 1926, “ Discussion of Heat Transfer From a Platinum Wire Submerged in Water,” Rocz. Chem., 6, pp. 321–354. (English Translation on File at Engineering Research Laboratory Experimental Station, E. I. DuPont de Nemours and Company, Wilmington, DE).
Nukiyama, S. , 1934, “ The Maximum and Minimum Values of the Heat Q Transmitted From Metal to Boiling Water Under Atmospheric Pressure,” J. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng., 37(12), pp. 367–374.
Jakob, M. , 1949, Heat Transfer, Vol. I, Wiley, New York, Chap. 29.
Rohsenow, W. M. , 1951, “ A Method of Correlating Heat Transfer Data for Surface Boiling of Liquids,” Office of Naval Research Division of Sponsored Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, Contract N5ori-07827, NR-035-267, D.I.C. Project No. 6627, p. 25.
Moore, F. D. , and Mesler, R. B. , 1961, “ The Measurement of Rapid Surface Temperature Fluctuations During Nucleate Boiling of Water,” AIChE J., 7(4), pp. 620–624. [CrossRef]
Hendricks, R. C. , and Sharp, R. R. , 1964, “ Initiation of Cooling Due to Bubble Growth on a Heating Surface,” NASA Technical Report No. TN D-2290.
Cooper, M. G. , and Lloyd, A. B. , 1966, “ Transient Local Heat Flux in Nucleate Boiling,” Third International Heat Transfer Conference, Chicago, IL, Vol. 3, pp. 193–203.
Han, C.-Y. , and Griffith, P. , 1962, “ The Mechanism of Heat Transfer in Nucleate Pool Boiling,” Office of Naval Research Division of Sponsored Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, Contract Nonr-1841(39), DSR No. 7-7673, Technical Report No. 7673-19, p. 76.
Tien, C. L. , 1962, “ A Hydrodynamic Model for Nucleate Pool Boiling,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 5(6), pp. 533–540. [CrossRef]
Zuber, N. , 1963, “ Nucleate Boiling. The Region of Isolated Bubbles and the Similarity With Natural Convection,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 6(1), pp. 53–78. [CrossRef]
Mikic, B. B. , and Rohsenow, W. M. , 1969, “ A New Correlation of Pool-Boiling Data Including the Effect of Heating Surface Characteristics,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 91(2), pp. 245–250. [CrossRef]
Brown, W. T., Jr. , 1967, “ Study of Flow Surface Boiling,” Ph.D. thesis, Mechanical Engineering Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.
van Stralen, S. , and Cole, R. , 1979, The Mechanism of Nucleate Boiling in Pure and Binary Systems, in Boiling Phenomena, Vol. 1, Hemisphere Publishing, New York, Chap. 9.
Stephan, P. , and Hammer, J. , 1994, “ A New Model for Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer,” Warme Stoffubertragung, 30(2), pp. 119–125.
Haider, S. M. , and Webb, R. L. , 1997, “ A Transient Micro-Convection Model of Nucleate Pool Boiling,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 40(15), pp. 3675–3699. [CrossRef]
Judd, R. L. , and Hwang, K. S. , 1976, “ A Comprehensive Model for Nucleate Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Including Microlayer Evaporation,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 98(4), pp. 623–629. [CrossRef]
Demiray, F. , and Kim, J. , 2004, “ Microscale Heat Transfer Measurements During Pool Boiling of FC-72: Effect of Subcooling,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 47(14–16,), pp. 3257–3268. [CrossRef]
Meyers, J. G. , Yeramilli, V. K. , Hussey, S. W. , Yee, G. F. , and Kim, J. , 2005, “ Time and Space Resolved Wall Temperature and Heat Flux Measurements During Nucleate Boiling With Constant Heat Flux Boundary Conditions,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 48(12), pp. 2429–2442. [CrossRef]
Kim, J. , 2009, “ Review of Nucleate Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Mechanisms,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 35(12), pp. 1067–1076. [CrossRef]
Moghaddam, S. , and Kiger, K. , 2009, “ Physical Mechanisms of Heat Transfer During Single Bubble Nucleate Boiling of FC-72 Under Saturated Conditions—I: Experimental Investigation,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 52(5–6), pp. 1284–1294. [CrossRef]
Moghaddam, S. , and Kiger, K. , 2009, “ Physical Mechanisms of Heat Transfer During Single Bubble Nucleate Boiling of FC-72 Under Saturation Conditions—II: Theoretical Analysis,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 52(5–6), pp. 1295–1303. [CrossRef]
Yabuki, T. , and Nakabeppu, O. , 2014, “ Heat Transfer Mechanisms in Isolated Bubble Boiling of Water Observed With MEMS Sensor,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 76(15–16), pp. 286–297. [CrossRef]
Wayner, P. C., Jr. , Kao, Y. K. , and LaCroix, L. V. , 1976, “ The Interline Heat Transfer Coefficient of an Evaporating Wetting Film,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 19(5), pp. 487–493. [CrossRef]
Raghupathi, P. , and Kandlikar, S. G. , 2016, “ Contact Line Region Heat Transfer Mechanisms,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 95, pp. 296–306. [CrossRef]
Kandlikar, S. G. , Kuan, W. K. , and Mukherjee, A. , 2005, “ Experimental Study of an Evaporating Meniscus on a Moving Heated Surface,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 127(3), pp. 244–252. [CrossRef]
Mukherjee, A. , and Kandlikar, S. G. , 2006, “ Numerical Study of an Evaporating Meniscus on a Moving Heated Surface,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 128(12), pp. 1285–1292. [CrossRef]
Westwater, J. W. , 1973, “ Development of Extended Surfaces for Use in Boiling Liquids,” AIChE Symp. Ser., 69(131), pp. 1–9.
McGillis, W. R. , Carey, V. P. , Fitch, J. S. , and Hamburgen, W. R. , 1991, “ Pool Boiling Enhancement Techniques for Water at Low Pressure,” Seventh Annual IEEE Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium (SEMI-THERM VII), Phoenix, AZ, Feb. 12–14, IEEE, pp. 64–72.
Kurihari, H. M. , and Myers, J. E. , 1960, “ The Effects of Superheat and Surface Roughness on Boiling Coefficients,” AIChE J., 6(1), pp. 83–91. [CrossRef]
Marto, P. J. , and Lepere, V. J. , 1982, “ Pool Boiling Heat Transfer From Enhanced Surfaces to Dielectric Fluids,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 104(2), pp. 292–299. [CrossRef]
Bergles, A. E. , 1997, “ Enhancement of Pool Boiling,” Int. J. Refrig., 20(8), pp. 545–551. [CrossRef]
Webb, R. L. , 1983, “ Nucleate Boiling on Porous Coated Surfaces,” Heat Transfer Eng., 4(3–4), pp. 71–82. [CrossRef]
Chang, J. Y. , and You, S. M. , 1997, “ Boiling Heat Transfer Phenomena From Microporous and Porous Surfaces in Saturated FC-72,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 40(18), pp. 4437–4447. [CrossRef]
Liter, S. G. , and Kaviany, M. , 2001, “ Pool-Boiling CHF Enhancement by Modulated Porous-Layer Coating: Theory and Experiment,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 44(22), pp. 4287–4311. [CrossRef]
Li, C. , and Peterson, G. P. , 2007, “ Parametric Study of Pool Boiling on Horizontal Highly Conductive Microporous Coated Surfaces,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 129(11), pp. 1465–1475. [CrossRef]
Li, C. H. , Li, T. , Hodgins, P. , Hunter, C. N. , Voevodin, A. A. , Jones, J. G. , and Peterson, G. P. , 2011, “ Comparison Study of Liquid Replenishing Impacts on Critical Heat Flux and Heat Transfer Coefficient of Nucleate Pool Boiling on Multiscale Modulated Porous Structures,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 54(15–16), pp. 3146–3155. [CrossRef]
Mori, S. , and Okuyama, K. , 2009, “ Enhancement of the Critical Heat Flux in Saturated Pool Boiling Using Honeycomb Porous Media,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 35(10), pp. 946–951. [CrossRef]
Nakayama, W. , Daikoku, T. , Kuwahara, H. , and Nakajima, T. , 1980, “ Dynamic Model of Enhanced Boiling Heat Transfer on Porous Surfaces—Part I: Experimental Investigation,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 102(3), pp. 445–450. [CrossRef]
Bai, L. , Zhang, L. , Lin, G. , and Peterson, G. P. , 2016, “ Pool Boiling With High Heat Flux Enabled by a Porous Artery Structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 108(23), p. 233901. [CrossRef]
Dai, X. , Yang, F. , Yang, R. , Huang, X. , and Rigdon, W. A. , 2014, “ Biphilic Nanoporous Surfaces Enabled Exceptional Drag Reduction and Capillary Evaporation Enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 105(19), p. 191611. [CrossRef]
Plawsky, J. L. , Fedorov, A. G. , Garimella, S. V. , Ma, H. B. , Maroo, S. C. , Chen, L. , and Nam, Y. , 2014, “ Nano- and Microstructures for Thin Film Evaporation–A Review,” Nanoscale Microscale Thermophys. Eng., 18(3), pp. 251–269. [CrossRef]
Liaw, S. P. , and Dhir, V. K. , 1986, “ Effect of Surface Wettability on Transition Boiling Heat Transfer From a Vertical Surface,” Eighth International Heat Transfer Conference, San Francisco, CA, Vol. 4, pp. 2031–2036.
Kandlikar, S. G. , 2001, “ A Theoretical Model to Predict Pool Boiling CHF Incorporating Effects of Contact Angle and Orientation,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 123(6), pp. 1071–1079. [CrossRef]
Betz, A. R. , Xu, J. , Qiu, H. , and Attinger, D. , 2010, “ Do Surfaces With Mixed Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Areas Enhance Pool Boiling?,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 97(14), p. 141909. [CrossRef]
Chu, K.-H. , Enright, R. , and Wang, E. N. , 2012, “ Structured Surfaces for Enhanced Pool Boiling Heat Transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 100(24), p. 241603. [CrossRef]
Chu, K.-H. , Enright, R. , and Wang, E. N. , 2013, “ Hierarchically Structured Surfaces for Boiling Critical Heat Flux Enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 102(15), p. 151602. [CrossRef]
O'Hanley , Coyle, C. , Buongiorno, J. , McKrell, T. , Hu, L.-W. , Rubner, M. , and Cohen, R. , 2013, “ Separate Effects of Surface Roughness, Wettability, and Porosity on the Boiling Critical Heat Flux,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 103(2), p. 024102. [CrossRef]
Rahman, M. M. , Ölçeroğlu, E. , and McCarthy, M. , 2014, “ Role of Wickability on the Critical Heat Flux of Structured Superhydrophilic Surfaces,” Langmuir, 30(37), pp. 11225–11234. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zou, A. , and Maroo, S. C. , 2013, “ Critical Height of Micro/Nano Structures for Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(22), p. 221602. [CrossRef]
Jaikumar, A. , Kandlikar, S. G. , and Gupta, A. , 2016, “ Pool Boiling Enhancement Through Graphene and Graphene Oxide Coatings,” Heat Transfer Eng., 38, pp. 14–15.
Mikic, B. B. , Rohsenow, W. M. , and Griffith, P. , 1970, “ On Bubble Growth Rates,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 13(4), pp. 657–666. [CrossRef]
Ahn, H. S. , Kim, J. M. , Kaviany, M. , and Kim, M. H. , 2014, “ Pool Boiling Experiments in Reduced Graphene Oxide Colloid—Part I: Boiling Characteristics,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 74, pp. 501–512. [CrossRef]
Ahn, H. S. , Kim, J. M. , Kim, J. M. , Park, S. C. , Hwang, K. , Jo, H. J. , Kim, T. , Jerng, D. W. , Kaviany, M. , and Kim, M. H. , 2015, “ Boiling Characteristics on the Reduced Graphene Oxide Films,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 60, pp. 361–366. [CrossRef]
Seo, H. , Chu, J. H. , Kwon, S.-Y. , and Bang, C. , 2015, “ Pool Boiling CHF of Reduced Graphene Oxide, Graphene, and SiC-Coated Surfaces Under Highly Wettable FC-72,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 82, pp. 490–502. [CrossRef]
Kandlikar, S. G. , 2013, “ Controlling Bubble Motion Over Heated Surface Through Evaporation Momentum Force to Enhance Pool Boiling Heat Transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 102(5), p. 051611. [CrossRef]
Raghupathi, P. A. , and Kandlikar, S. G. , 2016, “ Bubble Growth and Departure Trajectory Under Asymmetric Temperature Conditions,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 95, pp. 824–832. [CrossRef]
Rahman, M. M. , Pollack, J. , and McCarthy, M. , 2015, “ Heat Transfer Using Low Conductivity Materials,” Scientific Reports, 5, p. 13145. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Cooke, D. , and Kandlikar, S. G. , 2012, “ Effect of Open Microchannel Geometry on Pool Boiling Enhancement,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 55(4), pp. 1004–1013. [CrossRef]
Cooke, D. , and Kandlikar, S. G. , 2011, “ Pool Boiling Heat Transfer and Bubble Dynamics Over Plain and Enhanced Microchannels,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 133(5), p. 052902. [CrossRef]
Patil, C. M. , and Kandlikar, S. G. , 2014, “ Pool Boiling Enhancement Through Microporous Coatings Selectively Electrodeposited on Fin Tops of Open Microchannels,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 79, pp. 816–828. [CrossRef]
Jaikumar, A. , and Kandlikar, S. G. , 2016, “ Ultra-High Pool Boiling Performance and Effect of Channel Width With Selectively Coated Open Microchannels,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 95, pp. 795–805. [CrossRef]
Jaikumar, A. , and Kandlikar, S. G. , 2015, “ Enhanced Pool Boiling for Electronics Cooling Using Porous Fin Tops on Open Microchannels With FC-87,” Appl. Thermal Eng., 91, pp. 426–433. [CrossRef]
Jaikumar, A. , and Kandlikar, S. G. , 2016, “ Pool Boiling Enhancement Through Bubble Induced Convective Liquid Flow in Feeder Microchannels,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 108(4), p. 041604. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of heat transfer mechanisms: a nucleating bubble reported in literature during pool boiling

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic of a pore and tunnel structure. Redrawn from Ref. [38].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Surfaces with hydrophilic network with hydrophilic islands and reverse configurations, images courtesy of Professor Attinger [44]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a) Hierarchical micronanostructures and (b) boiling curves for hierarchical enhanced pool boiling surfaces developed by Chu et al. [46], images courtesy of Professor Wang

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Schematic representation of two types of macroconvection heat transfer outside the influence region of a departing bubble. (a) Bubble departing normal to the surface and liquid flow toward the nucleation site and (b) bubble departing along the heater surface and liquid–vapor flow along the surface away from the nucleation site.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Contoured fin design based on evaporation momentum force to create separate liquid–vapor pathways: (a) contoured fin geometry and (b) boiling curve with water at atmospheric pressure. Redrawn from Ref. [55].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Heat transfer mechanism of bubble-induced impinging liquid jet into the microchannel: (a) type 1–sintered fin tops and (b) type 2–sintered channel. Redrawn from Ref. [61].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Separate liquid–vapor pathways induced by nucleating regions separated by feeder channels: (a) photograph showing the departing bubbles in the nucleation region and the feeder channels, (b) schematic showing the macroconvection enhancement mechanism with separate liquid–vapor pathways [63], (c) to-view of the feeder microchannels directing liquid to nucleating regions, (d) use of pin fins inside the feeder microchannels for further enhancement, and (e) offset strip fins replacing the feeder microchannels

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Comparison of different enhancement techniques; Tall microstructures–Li et al. [36], Mori and Okayuma [37]; Bi-conductive–Rahman et al. [57]; Nanomicro ridges–Zou and Maroo [49], Jaikumar et al. [50]; Wicking microstructures–Rahman et al. [48], Chu et al. [46]; Nakayama et al. [38]; Separate liquid–vapor pathways (enhanced microconvective mechanism), Cooke and Kandlikar [58], Kandlikar [55], Patil and Kandlikar [60], Jaikumar and Kandlikar [63]: (a) CHF versus wall superheat, (b) HTC versus CHF, and (c) images of the respective enhanced surfaces



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In