Research Papers: Radiative Heat Transfer

Effective Spectral Emissivity of Gas Turbine Blades for Optical Pyrometry

[+] Author and Article Information
Jibin Tian

Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and
Power Engineering of Ministry of Education,
Beijing Key Laboratory of CO2 Utilization and
Reduction Technology,
Department of Thermal Engineering,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China

Tairan Fu

Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and
Power Engineering of Ministry of Education,
Beijing Key Laboratory of CO2 Utilization and
Reduction Technology,
Department of Thermal Engineering,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China
e-mail: trfu@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

Qiaoqi Xu

National Research Center of Gas turbine and
IGCC Technology,
Department of Thermal Engineering,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China

Hongde Jiang

National Research Center of Gas turbine and IGCC Technology,
Department of Thermal Engineering,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received October 1, 2016; final manuscript received December 23, 2016; published online March 15, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Laurent Pilon.

J. Heat Transfer 139(7), 072701 (Mar 15, 2017) (6 pages) Paper No: HT-16-1617; doi: 10.1115/1.4035732 History: Received October 01, 2016; Revised December 23, 2016

Turbine blade temperature measurements are important for monitoring the turbine engine performance to protect the hot components from damage due to excess temperatures. However, the reflected radiation from the blades and the surrounding environment complicate the blade temperature measurements by optical pyrometers. This study characterizes the effect of the reflected radiation on the effective spectral emissivity of a three-dimensional turbine blade in a confined turbine space for optical pyrometry temperature measurements. The effective spectral emissivity distribution on a three-dimensional blade was numerically determined for various wavelengths (0.8–15.0 μm) and actual blade surface emissivities for a specified turbine blade model. When the actual spectral emissivity of the blade surface is assumed to be 0.5, the effective spectral emissivity varies from 0.5 to 0.538 at the longer wavelength of 10.0 μm and further increases from 0.5 to 1.396 at the shorter wavelength of 0.9 μm. The results show that the effective emissivity distributions at shorter wavelengths differ greatly from those at longer wavelengths. There are also obvious differences between the effective spectral emissivity and the actual surface emissivity at shorter wavelengths. The effect of the effective emissivity on the temperature measurement accuracy, when using the optical pyrometry, was also investigated for various wavelengths (0.8–15.0 μm). The results show that the radiation reflected from the blades has less effect on the temperature measurements than on the effective emissivity, especially at the shorter wavelengths of 0.8–3.0 μm. However, the temperature measurements still need to be corrected using the effective spectral emissivity to improve the temperature calculation accuracy. This analysis provides guidelines for choosing the optimum measurement wavelengths for optical pyrometry in turbine engines.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Li, Y. G. , 2002, “ Performance-Analysis-Based Gas Turbine Diagnostics: A Review,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part A, 216(5), pp. 363–377. [CrossRef]
Poullikkas, A. , 2005, “ An Overview of Current and Future Sustainable Gas Turbine Technologies,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 9(5), pp. 409–443. [CrossRef]
Wright, I. G. , and Gibbons, T. B. , 2007, “ Recent Developments in Gas Turbine Materials and Technology and Their Implications for Syngas Firing,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 32(16), pp. 3610–3621. [CrossRef]
Garg, S. , 2013, “ Aircraft Turbine Engine Control Research at NASA Glenn Research Center,” J. Aerosp. Eng., 26(2), pp. 422–438. [CrossRef]
Yuri, M. , Masada, J. , Tsukagoshi, K. , Ito, E. , and Hada, S. , 2013, “ Development of 1600 C-Class High-Efficiency Gas Turbine for Power Generation Applying J-Type Technology,” Mitsubishi Heavy Ind. Tech. Rev., 50(3), pp. 1–10.
Pfefferkorn, F. E. , Incropera, F. P. , and Shin, Y. C. , 2003, “ Surface Temperature Measurement of Semi-Transparent Ceramics by Long-Wavelength Pyrometry,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 125(1), pp. 48–56. [CrossRef]
Ranc, N. , Pina, V. , Sutter, G. , and Philippon, S. , 2004, “ Temperature Measurement by Visible Pyrometry: Orthogonal Cutting Application,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 126(6), pp. 931–936. [CrossRef]
Bendada, A. , and Lamontagne, M. , 2004, “ A New Infrared Pyrometer for Polymer Temperature Measurement During Extrusion Moulding,” Infrared Phys. Technol., 46(1–2), pp. 11–15. [CrossRef]
Simmons, D. F. , Fortgang, C. M. , and Holtkamp, D. B. , 2005, “ Using Multispectral Imaging to Measure Temperature Profiles and Emissivity of Large Thermionic Dispenser Cathodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., 76(4), p. 044901. [CrossRef]
Pfänder, M. , Lüpfert, E. , and Heller, P. , 2006, “ Pyrometric Temperature Measurements on Solar Thermal High Temperature Receivers,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 128(3), pp. 285–292. [CrossRef]
Payri, F. , Pastor, J. V. , García, J. M. , and Pastor, J. M. , 2007, “ Contribution to the Application of Two-Colour Imaging to Diesel Combustion,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 18(8), pp. 2579–2598. [CrossRef]
Madura, H. , Kastek, M. , and Piatkowski, T. , 2007, “ Automatic Compensation of Emissivity in Three-Wavelength Pyrometers,” Infrared Phys. Technol., 51(1), pp. 1–8. [CrossRef]
Dai, J. M. , Wang, X. B. , and Liu, X. D. , 2008, “ Peak-Wavelength Method for Temperature Measurement,” Int. J. Thermophys., 29(3), pp. 1116–1122. [CrossRef]
Densmore, J. M. , Biss, M. M. , McNesby, K. L. , and Homan, B. E. , 2011, “ High-Speed Digital Color Imaging Pyrometry,” Appl. Opt., 50(17), pp. 2659–2665. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Fu, T. R. , Zhao, H. , Zeng, J. , Zhong, M. H. , and Shi, C. L. , 2010, “ Two-Color Optical CCD-Based Pyrometer Using a Two-Peak Filter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., 81(12), p. 124903. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Fu, T. R. , Yang, Z. J. , Wang, L. P. , Cheng, X. F. , Zhong, M. H. , and Shi, C. L. , 2010, “ Measurement Performance of Optical CCD-Based Pyrometer System,” Optics Laser Tech., 42(4), pp. 586–593.
Fu, T. R. , Wang, Z. , and Cheng, X. F. , 2010, “ Temperature Measurements of a Diesel Fuel Combustion With Multicolor Pyrometry,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 132(5), p. 051602. [CrossRef]
Fu, T. R. , Tan, P. , Pang, C. H. , Zhao, H. , and Shen, Y. , 2011, “ Fast Fiber-Optic Multi-Wavelength Pyrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., 82(6), p. 064902. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Fu, T. R. , Liu, J. F. , Duan, M. H. , and Zong, A. Z. , 2014, “ Temperature Measurements Using Multicolor Pyrometry in Thermal Radiation Heating Environments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., 85(4), p. 044901. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Suarez, E. , and Przirembel, H. R. , 1990, “ Pyrometry for Turbine Blade Development,” J. Propul. Power, 6(5), pp. 584–589. [CrossRef]
Kerr, C. , and Ivey, P. , 2002, “ An Overview of the Measurement Errors Associated With Gas Turbine Aeroengine Pyrometer Systems,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 13(6), pp. 873–871. [CrossRef]
Kerr, C. , and Ivey, P. , 2004, “ Optical Pyrometry for Gas Turbine Aeroengines,” Sens. Rev., 24(4), pp. 378–386. [CrossRef]
Willsch, M. , Bosselmann, T. , and Theune, N. M. , 2004, “ New Approaches for the Monitoring of Gas Turbine Blades and Vanes,” IEEE Sensors Conference, Oct. 24–27, pp. 20–23.
Horlock, J. H. , and Torbidoni, L. , 2006, “ Turbine Blade Cooling: the Blade Temperature Distribution,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. A, 220(4), pp. 343–353. [CrossRef]
Mori, M. , Novak, L. , and Sekavčnik, M. , 2007, “ Measurements on Rotating Blades Using IR Thermography,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 32(2), pp. 387–396. [CrossRef]
Eggert, T. , Schenk, B. , and Pucher, H. , 2002, “ Development and Evaluation of a High-Resolution Turbine Pyrometer System,” ASME J. Turbomach., 124(3), pp. 439–444. [CrossRef]
Markham, J. R. , Latvakoski, H. M. , Frank, S. L. F. , and Lüdtke, M. , 2002, “ Simultaneous Short and Long Wavelength Infrared Pyrometer Measurements in a Heavy Duty Gas Turbine,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 124(3), pp. 528–533. [CrossRef]
Rooth, R. A. , and Hiemstra, W. , 2003, “ Dual Wavelength Temperature Monitoring of TBC Coated Alstom 13E2 Turbine Blades,” ASME Paper No. GT2003-38814.
Taniguchi, T. , Sanbonsugi, K. , Ozaki, Y. , and Norimoto, A. , 2006, “ Temperature Measurement of High Speed Rotating Turbine Blades Using a Pyrometer,” ASME Paper No. GT2006-90247.
Taniguchi, T. , Tanaka, R. , Shinoda, Y. , Ryu, M. , Moritz, N. , and Kusterer, K. , 2012, “ Application of an Optical Pyrometer to Newly Developed Industrial Gas Turbine,” ASME Paper No. GT2012-68679.
Wang, G. H. , Estevadeordal, J. , and Nirmalan, N. , 2013, “ Real-Time Multi-Color Techniques for Identification and Filtering of Burst Signals in Jet Engine Pyrometers,” ASME Paper No. FEDSM 2013-16623.
Estevadeordal, J. , Wang, G. H. , Nirmalan, N. , Harper, S. P. , Wang, A. Q. , Lewandowski, B. , and Rigney, J. D. , 2012, “ Multi-Color Techniques for Identification and Filtering of Burst Signals in Jet Engine Pyrometers,” ASME Paper No. GT2012-69614.
Estevadeordal, J. , Wang, G. H. , Nirmalan, N. , Wang, A. Q. , Harper, S. P. , and Rigney, J. D. , 2013, “ Multicolor Techniques for Identification and Filtering of Burst Signals in Jet Engine Pyrometers,” ASME J. Turbomach., 136(3), p. 031004. [CrossRef]
Wang, G. H. , Estevadeordal, J. , Nirmalan, N. , and Harper, S. P. , 2015, “ Real-Time Burst Signal Removal Using Multicolor Pyrometry Based Filter for Improved Jet Engine Control,” ASME J. Turbomach., 137(8), p. 081008. [CrossRef]
Lucia, M. , and Lanfranchi, C. , 1994, “ An Infrared Pyrometry System for Monitoring Gas Turbine Blades: Development of a Computer Model and Experimental Results,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 116(1), pp. 172–177. [CrossRef]
Gao, S. , Wang, L. X. , Feng, C. , Xiao, Y. , and Daniel, K. , 2015, “ Monitoring Temperature for Gas Turbine Blade: Correction of Reflection Model,” Opt. Eng., 54(6), p. 065102. [CrossRef]
Gao, S. , Wang, L. X. , Feng, C. , and Daniel, K. , 2015, “ Analysis and Improvement of Gas Turbine Blade Temperature Measurement Error,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 26(10), p. 105203. [CrossRef]
Almohammadi, K. M. , Ingham, D. B. , Ma, L. , and Pourkashan, M. , 2013, “ Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Mesh Independency Techniques for a Straight Blade Vertical Axis Wind Turbine,” Energy, 58, pp. 483–493. [CrossRef]
Mathew, S. , Ravelli, S. , and Bogard, D. G. , 2013, “ Evaluation of CFD Predictions Using Thermal Field Measurements on a Simulated Film Cooled Turbine Blade Leading Edge,” ASME J. Turbomach., 135(1), p. 011021. [CrossRef]
Xu, L. , and Luo, H. , 2008, “ The Technology of Numerical Simulation Based on ANSYS ICEM CFD and CFX Software,” Mech. Eng., 12, p. 049.
Howell, J. R. , Siegel, R. , and Menguc, M. P. , 2010, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, 5th ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Sketch of the radiation temperature measurement of blade #4 by an optical pyrometer

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Temperature distribution on the turbine rotor blade with temperatures of 602–1206 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Temperature distribution on the turbine stator vane with temperatures of 449–1052 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Simplified model of the rotor blades and stator vanes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

View factors between two triangular elements

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Effective spectral emissivity distribution at 10.0 μm (blade #4)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Effective spectral emissivity distribution at 0.9 μm (blade #4)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Maximum relative emissivity error for wavelengths of 0.8–15 μm (rotor blade #4)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Temperature errors without the reflected radiation correction for wavelengths of 0.8–15.0 μm



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In