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Research Papers: Micro/Nanoscale Heat Transfer

Phenomenon and Mechanism of Spray Cooling on Nanowire Arrayed and Hybrid Micro/Nanostructured Surfaces

[+] Author and Article Information
Jian-nan Chen, Xiao-long Ouyang, Gao-yuan Wang

Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power
Engineering of Ministry of Education,
Beijing Key Laboratory for CO2 Utilization
and Reduction Technology,
Department of Energy and Power Engineering,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China

Rui-na Xu, Xue Chen

Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power
Engineering of Ministry of Education,
Beijing Key Laboratory for CO2 Utilization and
Reduction Technology,
Department of Energy and Power Engineering,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China

Zhen Zhang

Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering
and Safety of Ministry of Education,
Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced
Nuclear Energy Technology,
Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China

Pei-xue Jiang

Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power
Engineering of Ministry of Education,
Beijing Key Laboratory for CO2 Utilization and
Reduction Technology,
Department of Energy and Power Engineering,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China
e-mail: jiangpx@tsinghua.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received June 10, 2017; final manuscript received March 28, 2018; published online July 23, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Thomas Beechem.

J. Heat Transfer 140(11), 112401 (Jul 23, 2018) (16 pages) Paper No: HT-17-1335; doi: 10.1115/1.4039903 History: Received June 10, 2017; Revised March 28, 2018

Enhancing spray cooling with surface structures is a common, effective approach for high heat flux thermal management to guarantee the reliability of many high-power, high-speed electronics and to improve the efficiency of new energy systems. However, the fundamental heat transfer enhancement mechanisms are not well understood especially for nanostructures. Here, we fabricated six groups of nanowire arrayed surfaces with various structures and sizes that show for the first time how these nanostructures enhance the spray cooling by improving the surface wettability and the liquid transport to quickly rewet the surface and avoid dry out. These insights into the nanostructure spray cooling heat transfer enhancement mechanisms are combined with microstructure heat transfer mechanism in integrated microstructure and nanostructure hybrid surface that further enhances the spray cooling heat transfer.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Topics: Cooling , Sprays , Nanowires
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References

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Figures

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Fig. 5

(a) SEM images of two nanowire array structures and (b) six nanowire arrayed test surfaces with various sizes and structures. A ‘1’ as the one's digit indicates that the nanowire array structure is a regular structure while a ‘2’ means the nanowire array structure is an irregular structure. The ten's digit indicates the nanowire size with a larger digit indicating taller and wider nanowires.

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Fig. 4

SEM images of the seed layer: (a) DCMS: top view (left), cross section (right) and (b) RFMS: top view (left), cross section (right)

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Fig. 2

Schematic of the test chip for the spray cooling experiments

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Fig. 1

Schematic of spray cooling system

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Fig. 3

Schematic of the heater fabrication process: (a) thermal oxidation, (b) BOE, (c) first lithography deposition by E-beam evaporation, (d) plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition SiO2 for electric passivation, (e) second lithography and BOE for solder region, and (f) solder metal layer deposition by E-beam evaporation

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Fig. 6

(a) Schematics of the hybrid structured surface fabrication. (b) SEM images of the microstructures and hybrid structures. (c) SEM images of the hybrid structures.

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Fig. 8

Illustration of the surface wetting characteristics for smooth surface and nanowire arrayed surface

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Fig. 9

Droplet-wetting radii on various nanowire array structure surfaces. Rd is the droplet spreading radius (from center to contact line) and Rp refers to the capillary wicking radius (from center to wicking rim).

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Fig. 10

Droplet-wetting radii on various nanowire size surfaces

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Fig. 12

Nanowire array structure effect on the spray cooling heat fluxes

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Fig. 7

Detailed schematic of the test sample package component (a) test chip, (b) PCB circuit board, (c) O-ring, (d) power line, (e) calcium silicate cellucotton (thermal conductivity = 0.05 W/m K) for thermal insulation, (f) polytetrafluoroethylene base, (g) bolts, and (h) wire passage holes sealed by RTV sealant

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Fig. 13

Nanowire size effect on the spray cooling heat fluxes: (a) heat fluxes on the regular nanowire array surfaces with different nanowire sizes, (b) heat fluxes on the irregular nanowire array surfaces with different nanowire sizes, and (c) CHF on the nanowire arrayed surfaces

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Fig. 14

Relationship between the spray cooling CHF and the surface wetting characteristics: (a) spray cooling CHF for various droplet wetting radii on the different test surfaces and (b) surface images during spraycooling and from the surface wetting characterization

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Fig. 15

Illustration of the spray cooling enhancement mechanism on a nanostructured surface

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Fig. 11

Spray cooling heat fluxes for the smooth and Nano-22 surfaces

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Fig. 16

(a) contact angle measurements for the microstructured and hybrid structured surfaces and (b) illustrations of the surface wetting characteristics of the microstructured and hybrid structured surfaces

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Fig. 17

Droplet-wetting radii on the microstructured and hybrid structured surfaces

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Fig. 18

Spray cooling heat fluxes on microstructured surfaces

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Fig. 19

Liquid film on the microstructured surface in the single-phase regime

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Fig. 20

Liquid film on the microstructured surface in the two-phase regime

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Fig. 21

Spray cooling heat fluxes on the hybrid structured surfaces

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