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Research Papers: Heat and Mass Transfer

# Energy Consumption and Drying Time Optimization of Convective Drying for Performance Improvement: Response Surface Methodology and Lattice Boltzmann Method

[+] Author and Article Information
H. Majdi

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
e-mail: h_majdi_eng@yahoo.com

J. A. Esfahani

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
e-mail: Abolfazl@um.ac.ir

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received December 15, 2017; final manuscript received May 8, 2018; published online June 18, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Yuwen Zhang.

J. Heat Transfer 140(10), 102009 (Jun 18, 2018) (13 pages) Paper No: HT-17-1751; doi: 10.1115/1.4040259 History: Received December 15, 2017; Revised May 08, 2018

## Abstract

In this paper, an optimization procedure is presented by response surface method to optimize the temperature and velocity of drying air and thickness of the moist object inside the dryer. The optimization procedure is performed to determine the minimum drying time and energy consumption as responses. A two-dimensional (2D) numerical solution is accomplished to analyze coupled heat and mass transfer occurring during drying of an apple slice. The air flow and the moist object are solved conjugate, while the heat and mass transfer equations are solved coupled together using lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Beside this, a sensitivity analysis is executed to calculate the sensitivity of the responses (drying time and energy consumption) to the control factors. Results reveal that the real optimized parameters for the minimum drying time and energy consumption are temperature (T = 80 °C), velocity (V = 0.10404 m/s), and thickness ratio (TR = 0.1). The results of numerical solution are compared to the experimental results, presenting a reasonable agreement. This analysis could be useful in food drying.

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## Figures

Fig. 1

Schematic view of the dryer domain

Fig. 2

Comparison between LBM result and experimental data [14] of dimensionless temperature during drying

Fig. 3

Comparison between LBM result and experimental data [14] of dimensionless moisture content during drying

Fig. 8

Optimization plot for the minimum drying time and energy consuming

Fig. 7

Results of sensitivity analysis

Fig. 6

Predicted responses as a function of factors for (a) energy consumption and (b) time

Fig. 5

Residual plots for (a) energy consumption and (b) time

Fig. 4

Generation of a three-factor Box–Behnken design

Fig. 9

(a) Streamlines and (b) temperature contours of the flow field

Fig. 10

(a) Temperature and (b) moisture distribution inside the moist object at t = 60 min

## Errata

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