Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a novel combustion strategy for IC engines that exhibits dramatic decreases in fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Originally conceived in 1979, the HCCI methodology has been revisited several times by industry but has yet to be implemented because the process is difficult to control. To help address these control challenges, the authors here outline the first generalizable, validated, and experimentally implemented physics-based control methodology for residual-affected HCCI engines. Specifically, the paper describes the formulation and validation of a two-input, two-state control-oriented system model of the residual-affected HCCI process occurring in a single engine cylinder. The combustion timing and peak pressure are the model states, while the inducted gas composition and effective compression ratio are the model inputs. The resulting model accurately captures the system dynamics and allows the simultaneous, coordinated control of both in-cylinder pressure and combustion timing. To demonstrate this, an optimal controller is synthesized from a linearized version of the model and used to dictate step changes in both combustion timing and peak pressure within about four to five engine cycles on an experimental test bed. The application of control also results in reductions in the standard deviation for both combustion timing and peak pressure. The approach therefore provides accurate mean tracking, as well as a reduction in cyclic dispersion. Another benefit of the simultaneous coordination of both control inputs is a reduction in the control effort required to elicit the desired response. Instead of using a peak pressure controller that must compensate for the effects of a combustion timing controller, and vice versa, the coordinated approach optimizes the use of both control inputs to regulate both outputs.
Physics-Based Modeling and Control of Residual-Affected HCCI Engines
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Shaver, G. M., Gerdes, J. C., and Roelle, M. J. (February 4, 2009). "Physics-Based Modeling and Control of Residual-Affected HCCI Engines." ASME. J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control. March 2009; 131(2): 021002. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3023125
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