Abstract

A design optimization campaign was conducted to search for improved combustion profiles that enhance gasoline compression ignition in a heavy-duty diesel engine with a geometric compression ratio of 17.3. A large-scale design of experiments approach was used for the optimization, employing three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations. The main parameters explored include geometric features, injector specifications, and swirl motion. Both stepped-lip and re-entrant bowls were included in order to assess their respective performance implications. A total of 256 design candidates were prepared using the software package CAESES for automated and simultaneous geometry generation and combustion recipe perturbation. The design optimization was conducted for three engine loads representing light to medium load conditions. The design candidates were evaluated for fuel efficiency, emissions, fuel–air mixing, and global combustion behavior. Simulation results showed that the optimum designs were all stepped-lip bowls, due to improvements in fuel–air mixing, as well as reduced heat loss and emissions formation. Improvements in indicated specific fuel consumption of up to 3.2% were achieved while meeting engine-out NOx emission targets of 1–1.5 g/kW · h. Re-entrant bowls performed worse compared to the baseline design, and significant performance variations occurred across the load points. Specifically, the re-entrant bowls were on par with the stepped-lip bowls under light load conditions, but significant deteriorations occurred under higher load conditions. As a final task, selected optimized designs were then evaluated under full-load conditions.

References

1.
Zhang
,
Y.
,
Voice
,
A.
,
Tzanetakis
,
T.
,
Traver
,
M.
, and
Cleary
,
D.
,
2016
, “
An Evaluation of Combustion and Emissions Performance With Low Cetane Naphtha Fuels in a Multicylinder Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
138
(
10
), p.
102805
. 10.1115/1.4032879
2.
Chang
,
J.
,
Kalghatgi
,
G.
,
Amer
,
A.
,
Adomeit
,
P.
,
Rohs
,
H.
, and
Heuser
,
B.
,
2013
, “
Vehicle Demonstration of Naphtha Fuel Achieving Both High Efficiency and Drivability With EURO6 Engine-Out NOx Emission
,”
SAE Int. J. Engines
,
6
(
1
), pp.
101
119
. 10.4271/2013-01-0267
3.
Kalghatgi
,
G.
,
Risberg
,
P.
, and
Ångström
,
H.
,
2006
, “
Advantages of Fuels With High Resistance to Auto-ignition in Late-injection, Low-temperature, Compression Ignition Combustion
,”
SAE Technical Paper No. 2006-01-3385
.
4.
Kalghatgi
,
G.
,
Risberg
,
P.
, and
Ångström
,
H.
,
2007
, “
Partially Pre-mixed Auto-ignition of Gasoline to Attain Low Smoke and Low NOx at High Load in a Compression Ignition Engine and Comparison With a Diesel Fuel
,”
SAE Technical Paper No. 2007-01-0006
.
5.
Kalghatgi
,
G.
,
Hildingsson
,
L.
, and
Johansson
,
B.
,
2010
, “
Low NOx and Low Smoke Operation of a Diesel Engine Using Gasolinelike Fuels
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
132
(
9
), p.
092803
. 10.1115/1.4000602
6.
Zhang
,
Y.
,
Kumar
,
P.
,
Traver
,
M.
, and
Cleary
,
D.
,
2016
, “
Conventional and Low Temperature Combustion Using Naphtha Fuels in a Multi-cylinder Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine
,”
SAE Int. J. Engines
,
9
(
2
), pp.
1021
1035
. 10.4271/2016-01-0764
7.
Zhang
,
Y.
,
Voice
,
A.
,
Pei
,
Y.
,
Traver
,
M.
, and
Cleary
,
D.
,
2018
, “
A Computational Investigation of Fuel Chemical and Physical Properties Effects on Gasoline Compression Ignition in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
140
(
10
), p.
102202
. 10.1115/1.4040010
8.
ExxonMobil
, “
The Outlook for Energy: A View to 2040
,”
2016
.
9.
US Energy Information Administration
, “
International Energy Outlook 2016. DOE/EIA-0484(2016)
,”
2016
.
10.
Andersson
,
Ö
, and
Miles
,
P. C.
,
2014
,
Encyclopedia of Automotive Engineering
,
D.
Crolla
,
D. E.
Foster
,
T.
Kobayashi
, and
N.
Vaughan
, eds.,
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
,
Hoboken, NJ
.
11.
Saurer
,
H.
,
1934
, “
Improvements in and Relating to Internal Combustion Engines of the Liquid Fuel Injection Type
.”
Germany Patent Application
.
12.
Iikubo
,
H. S.
,
Nakajima
,
H. H.
,
Adachi
,
H. Y.
, and
Shimokawa
,
H. K.
,
2012
, “
Combustion Chamber Structure for Direct Injection Diesel Engine
,”
Hino Motors, Ltd., Hino-shi (JP), U.S. Patent No. 8156927 B2
.
13.
Funayama
,
Y.
,
Nakajima
,
H.
, and
Shimokawa
,
K.
,
2016
, “
A Study on the Effects of a Higher Compression Ratio in the Combustion Chamber on Diesel Engine Performance
,”
SAE Technical Paper No. 2016-01-0722
.
14.
Nishida
,
K.
,
Hashizume
,
T.
,
Hasegawa
,
R.
, and
Ogawa
,
T.
,
2015
, “
Low Cooling Losses and Low Emission Analysis of Small Bore Diesel Engine Combustion
,”
SAE Technical Paper No. 2015-01-1824
.
15.
Styron
,
J.
,
Baldwin
,
B.
,
Fulton
,
B.
,
Ives
,
D.
, and
Ramanathan
,
S.
,
2011
, “
Ford 2011 6.7L Power Stroke® Diesel Engine Combustion System Development
,”
SAE Technical Paper No. 2011-01-0415
.
16.
Kurtz
,
E.
, and
Styron
,
J.
,
2012
, “
An Assessment of Two Piston Bowl Concepts in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine
,”
SAE Int. J. Engines
,
5
(
2
), pp.
344
352
. 10.4271/2012-01-0423
17.
Cornwell
,
H. R.
, and
Conciella
,
T. F.
,
2014
, “
Direct Injection Diesel Engines
,”
Ricardo UK Limited, West Susssex(GB), U.S. Patent No. 8770168 B2
.
18.
Neely
,
G.
,
Sasaki
,
S.
, and
Sono
,
H.
,
2007
, “
Investigation of Alternative Combustion Crossing Stoichiometric Air Fuel Ratio for Clean Diesels
,”
SAE Technical Paper No. 2007-01-1840
.
19.
Zha
,
K.
,
Busch
,
S.
,
Warey
,
A.
,
Peterson
,
R.
, and
Kurtz
,
E.
,
2018
, “
A Study of Piston Geometry Effects on Late-Stage Combustion in a Light-Duty Optical Diesel Engine Using Combustion Image Velocimetry
,”
SAE Int. J. Engines
,
11
(
6
), pp.
783
804
. 10.4271/2018-01-0230
20.
Pei
,
Y.
,
Zhang
,
Y.
,
Kumar
,
P.
,
Traver
,
M.
,
Cleary
,
D.
,
Ameen
,
M.
,
Som
,
S.
,
Probst
,
D.
,
Burton
,
T.
,
Pomraning
,
E.
, and
Senecal
,
P. K.
,
2017
, “
CFD-Guided Heavy Duty Mixing-Controlled Combustion System Optimization With a Gasoline-Like Fuel
,”
SAE Int. J. Commer. Veh.
,
10
(
2
), pp.
532
546
. 10.4271/2017-01-0550
21.
Owoyele
,
O.
, and
Pal
,
P.
,
2021
, “
A Novel Active Optimization Approach for Rapid and Efficient Design Space Exploration Using Ensemble Machine Learning
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
143
(
3
), p.
032307
. 10.1115/1.4049178
22.
Pei
,
Y.
,
Pal
,
P.
,
Zhang
,
Y.
,
Traver
,
M.
,
Cleary
,
D.
,
Futterer
,
C.
,
Brenner
,
M.
,
Probst
,
D.
, and
Som
,
S.
,
2019
, “
CFD-Guided Combustion System Optimization of a Gasoline Range Fuel in a Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Using Automatic Piston Geometry Generation and a Supercomputer
,”
SAE Int. J. Adv. Curr. Pract. Mobility
,
1
(
1
), pp.
166
179
. 10.4271/2019-01-0001
23.
Badra
,
J. A.
,
Khaled
,
F.
,
Tang
,
M.
,
Pei
,
Y.
,
Kodavasal
,
J.
,
Pal
,
P.
,
Owoyele
,
O.
,
Fuetterer
,
C.
,
Mattia
,
B.
, and
Aamir
,
F.
,
2021
, “
Engine Combustion System Optimization Using Computational Fluid Dynamics and Machine Learning: A Methodological Approach
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
143
(
2
), p.
022306
. 10.1115/1.4047978
24.
Zhang
,
Y.
,
Pei
,
Y.
,
Tang
,
M.
, and
Traver
,
M.
,
2019
, “
A Computational Investigation of Piston Bowl Geometry and Injector Spray Pattern Effects on Gasoline Compression Ignition in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine
,”
Proceedings of the ASME 2019 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference
,
Chicago, IL
,
Oct. 20–23
,
V001T03A004
. 10.1115/icef2019-7155
25.
Richards
,
K. J.
,
Senecal
,
P. K.
, and
Pomraning
,
E.
,
2020
,
CONVERGE 2.3
,
Convergent Science Inc.
,
Madison, WI
.
26.
Zhang
,
Y.
,
Kumar
,
P.
,
Pei
,
Y.
,
Traver
,
M.
, and
Cleary
,
D.
,
2018
, “
An Experimental and Computational Investigation of Gasoline Compression Ignition Using Conventional and Higher Reactivity Gasolines in a Multi-Cylinder Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine
,”
SAE Technical Paper No. 2018-01-0226
.
27.
Tang
,
M.
,
Pei
,
Y.
,
Zhang
,
Y.
,
Tzanetakis
,
T.
,
Traver
,
M.
,
Cleary
,
D.
,
Quan
,
S.
,
Naber
,
J.
, and
Lee
,
S.
,
2018
, “
Development of a Transient Spray Cone Angle Correlation for CFD Simulations at Diesel Engine Conditions
,”
SAE Technical Paper No. 2018-01-0304
.
28.
Liu
,
Y.-D.
,
Jia
,
M.
,
Xie
,
M.-Z.
, and
Pang
,
B.
, “
Enhancement on a Skeletal Kinetic Model for Primary Reference Fuel Oxidation by Using a Semidecoupling Methodology
,”
Energy Fuels
,
26
(
12
), pp.
7069
7083
. 10.1021/ef301242b
29.
FRIENDSHIP SYSTEMS
, “
CAESES User Manual
,”
2019
.
30.
EPA
,
2016
,
Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles-Phase 2
”,
US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Final Rule, Federal Register
,
81
(
206
),
73748
74274
, https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2016-10-25/pdf/2016-21203.pdf
You do not currently have access to this content.