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RESEARCH PAPERS

J. Heat Transfer. 1983;105(1):3-9. doi:10.1115/1.3245556.

The present investigation is an original study in nucleate pool boiling heat transfer combining theory and experiment in which water boiling at atmospheric pressure on a single copper surface at two different levels of heat and different levels of subcooling was studied. Cross spectral analysis of the signals generated by the emission of bubbles at adjacent nucleation sites was used to determine the relationship of the time elapsed between the start of bubble growth at the two neighbouring active sites with the distance separating them. The experimental results obtained indicated that for the lower level of heat flux at three different levels of subcooling, the elapsed time and distance were directly related. Theoretical predictions of a temperature disturbance propagating through the heating surface in the radial direction gave good agreement with the experimental findings, suggesting that this is the mechanism responsible for the activation of the surrounding nucleation sites.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 1983;105(1):10-17. doi:10.1115/1.3245528.

A method for predicting steady state dispersed vertical upflow film boiling heat transfer under constant heat flux conditions is presented. Differential transport equations and accepted heat transfer correlations are used to form a solution dependent upon knowledge of conditions at the dryout point only. Thermal nonequilibrium is included in the analysis and the actual flow quality is determined from local equilibrium conditions. A nondimensional grouping is derived which indicates the extent of nonequilibrium present in the flow. Results of this analysis are compared to data of three fluids in tube geometry: Freon 12, nitrogen, and steam. Predictions compare favorably with data from all three fluids.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 1983;105(1):18-24. doi:10.1115/1.3245540.

Performance of a new compact cooling unit for semiconductors, being composed of an atomizer, a fan, and a heat-dissipating surface with no fin, has been measured over a wide range of the mass flow rate of spray water, ṁ, and the wall heat flux. The heat transfer performance of the present compact, unit with ṁ = 0 to 1.05 g/s, attains 1.8 to 20 times that of the parallel-plate channel under the same thermal conditions.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 1983;105(1):25-32. doi:10.1115/1.3245554.

The conduction problem for cylinders embedded in a medium with variable thermal properties cannot be solved exactly if phase change occurs. New, approximate solutions have been found using the quasi-steady method. These solutions consider heat flow from the entire pipe surface, rather than from a single point, as has been assumed in the past. The temperature field, phase change location, and pipe surface heat transfer can be evaluated using graphs presented for parametric ranges of temperature, thermal properties, burial depth, and insulation thickness. The theoretical results show good agreement with complete numerical solutions. The accuracy of the method increases as the Stefan number decreases and the results are of particular value for insulated hot pipes or refrigerated gas lines.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 1983;105(1):33-40. doi:10.1115/1.3245555.

An experimental research program was conducted to determine the influence of free-stream turbulence on zero pressure gradient, fully turbulent boundary layer flow. Connective heat transfer coefficients and boundary layer mean velocity and temperature profile data were obtained for a constant free-stream velocity of 30 m/s and free-stream turbulence intensities ranging from approximately 1/4 to 7 percent. Free-stream multicomponent turbulence intensity, longitudinal integral scale, and spectral distributions were obtained for the full range of turbulence levels. The test results with 1/4 percent free-stream turbulence indicate that these data were in excellent agreement with classic two-dimensional, low free-stream turbulence, turbulent boundary layer correlations. For fully turbulent boundary layer flow, both the skin friction and heat transfer were found to be substantially increased (up to ∼ 20 percent) for the higher levels of free-stream turbulence. Detailed results of the experimental study are presented in the present paper (Part I). A comprehensive analysis is provided in a companion paper (Part II).

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 1983;105(1):41-47. doi:10.1115/1.3245557.

An experimental research program was conducted to determine the influence of free-stream turbulence on zero pressure gradient, fully turbulent boundary layer flow. In Part I of this paper, convective heat transfer coefficients, boundary layer mean velocity and temperature profile data, as well as wall skin friction coefficient distribution data were presented for five flow conditions of constant free-stream velocity (30 m/s) and free-stream turbulence intensities ranging from approximately 1/4 to 7 percent. These data indicated that the turbulence had significant effects on both the turbulent boundary layer skin friction and heat transfer. In the current paper, these new data are compared to various independent experimental data and analytical correlations of free-stream turbulence effects. This analysis has shown that the effects documented in Part I were a function of the freestream turbulence intensity, the turbulence length scale, and the boundary layer momentum thickness Reynolds number. In addition, the Reynolds analogy factor (2St/cf ) was shown to increase by just over 1 percent for each 1 percent increase in free-stream turbulence level. New correlations for the influence of free-stream turbulence on skin friction, heat transfer, and the Reynolds analogy factor are presented.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 1983;105(1):48-55. doi:10.1115/1.3245558.

Wind tunnel experiments were performed to determine heat transfer coefficients and fluid flow patterns for two contacting spheres. The experiments were carried out at three different angles of attack and for Reynolds numbers in the range from 4000 to 26,000. Three heat transfer conditions were considered: (a) both spheres thermally active, (b) forwardmost sphere thermally active and rearmost sphere adiabatic, and (c) forwardmost sphere adiabatic and rearmost sphere thermally active. Complementary experiments for a single sphere, encompassing the same parameter ranges, yielded baseline information for comparison with the two-sphere results. It was found that the largest effects of the sphere-to-sphere interaction on the heat transfer occurred when the two spheres were in line. At this orientation and for higher Reynolds numbers in the investigated range, there was substantial enhancement of the heat transfer with respect to that for the single sphere. At the other angles of attack, there was lesser enhancement. The visualization studies revealed such key fluid flow features as the reattachment of the separated flow from the first sphere on the second, the presence of strong recirculations, and the delay of separation due to pressure-driven transverse flows.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 1983;105(1):56-63. doi:10.1115/1.3245559.

Local turbulent heat transfer coefficients for airflow were measured in a tube situated downstream of a cylindrical plenum chamber in which the inflow was radial and the outflow was axial. Pressure drop measurements and flow visualization were performed to supplement the heat transfer experiments. The plenum length and diameter were varied systematically during the experiments, and the Reynolds number ranged from 10,000 to 60,000. Substantially higher Nusselt numbers in the tube were encountered for the present nonaligned plenum inlet/exit configuration than for a plenum with axially aligned inlet and exit or for an upstream hydrodynamic development section. For a given Reynolds number, the Nusselt numbers corresponding to the present plenum configuration were quite insensitive to the investigated geometrical parameters. The thermal development length was found to be substantially elongated due to swirl carried into the tube from the plenum; the presence of the swirl was confirmed by flow visualization. The net pressure loss due to the presence of the plenum was about 1.75 velocity heads and was guite insensitive to the geometrical parameters and to the Reynolds number.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 1983;105(1):64-69. doi:10.1115/1.3245560.

An experimental investigation has been performed to clarify the turbulent heat transfer characteristics along the heated convex wall of a return bend which has a rectangular cross section with large aspect ratio for various heights of the duct. The experiments are carried out under the condition that the convex wall is heated at constant heat flux while the concave wall is insulated. Water is used as the working fluid with duct heights of 15, 40, 60 and 80 mm, Reynolds numbers of 8 × 103 to 8 × 104 , and Prandtl numbers ranging from 6.5 to 8.5. The mean and the local heat transfer coefficients are always smaller than those for the straight parallel plates and straight ducts. Both the local and the mean heat transfer coefficients decrease as the duct height increases. Near the outlet region of the return bend the local heat transfer coefficient increases in the flow direction as the height decreases. Behavior is just the opposite at the inlet. Correlation equations for the mean and the local Nusselt numbers are determined in the range of parameters covered.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 1983;105(1):70-75. doi:10.1115/1.3245561.

The purpose of this work is to develop models for predicting the radiant heat flux in lightweight fibrous insulations (LWFI). The radiative transport process is modeled by the two-flux solution and the linear anisotropic scattering solution of the equation of transfer. The radiative properties of LWFI consistent with these solutions have been determined based on extinction of electromagnetic radiation by the fibers. Their dependence on the physical characteristics of fibrous insulations has been investigated. It has been found that the radiant heat flux can be minimized by making the mean radius of the fibers close to that which yields the maximum extinction coefficient. The results obtained in this study are useful to those concerned with the design and application of LWFI.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 1983;105(1):76-81. doi:10.1115/1.3245562.

Two experiments have been conducted to study radiative heat transfer in lightweight fibrous insulations (LWFI). The spectral extinction coefficients for a commercial LWFI have been measured via transmission measurements, and a guarded hot plate apparatus has been used to measure the radiant heat flux as well as the total heat flux in the insulation. The experimental results are compared with the theoretical values calculated according to the analytical models presented in Part I of this paper. The comparisons reveal that the analytical models are useful in giving representative values for the radiative properties of typical LWFI. However, only qualitative agreements have been obtained for the heat transfer results.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 1983;105(1):82-88. doi:10.1115/1.3245563.

Broadening of aviation fuel specifications has been simulated using blends of gas oil and residual fuel oil. Radiation, smoke, and temperature measurements in an experimental combustor at various air pressure, inlet temperture, and air/fuel ratios showed a diminishing rate of increase of radiation with soot concentration and reduced sensitivity of smoke to fuel hydrogen content at higher combustor pressures.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 1983;105(1):89-95. doi:10.1115/1.3245564.

A numerical finite-difference study has been carried out for the two-dimensional radiation-natural convection interaction phenomena in square enclosures with equal vertical finite-thickness partitions located at the centers of the ceiling and floor. Both participating gases (CO2 and NH3 ) and nonparticipating gas (air) are considered. In the radiation calculations, the nongray exponential wide-band models for CO2 and NH3 are used, together with a radial flux method utilizing a more realistic polar description for the radiation exchange in the enclosure. Results on the effects of both surface and gas radiation on the velocity and temperature fields and the overall heat transfer rates as functions of the partition heights at two levels of the Grashof number are presented and discussed in terms of the physical phenomena.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 1983;105(1):96-101. doi:10.1115/1.3245565.

The laminar boundary layer induced by a horizontal forced flow along an infinite vertical cylinder with a step change of surface temperature is studied by a finite-difference method. Close to the thermal leading edge, the buoyancy force induces a strong free-convection boundary layer. Slightly above the thermal leading edge, the boundary layer starts to separate at the rear stagnation line (φ = 180 deg). The region of separated flow grows toward the forward stagnation line and becomes stationary at φ = 104 deg as one moves upward. In other words, free convection dominates the heat transfer along the thermal leading edge. The importance of forced convection increases as one moves vertically from the thermal leading edge and eventually becomes the dominant mode. The numerical results show that the free-convection boundary layer is suppressed at the forward stagnation line and is carried toward the rear stagnation line by the forced convection. The phenomenon shares many similarities with a thermal plume affected by forced convection.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 1983;105(1):102-107. doi:10.1115/1.3245526.

Empirical formulas are proposed from experiments on free convective heat transfer from a cylinder array arranged in a vertical line. Subsequently, experiments were carried out to examine the effect of two parallel plates enclosing the array as a heat transfer promoter. Finally, through a discussion of the heat transfer from the entire cylinder systems, both in open and in restricted spaces, a recommendation is made for designing a heat exchanger of a single-line type of cylinder bank.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 1983;105(1):108-116. doi:10.1115/1.3245527.

Laminar natural convection flow between vertically eccentric horizontal cylinders is studied numerically. The inner and outer cylinders are heated and cooled, respectively, to maintain constant surface temperatures. A physical model is introduced which accounts for the effects of fluid buoyancy as well as the eccentricity of the outer cylinder. A radial transformation is used to map the eccentric outer boundary into a concentric circle. Both eccentricity and buoyancy have a significant influence on the heat transfer and flow field of a fluid between horizontal cylinders. The effect of buoyancy, which enhances average heat transfer, increases with the Grashof number. Eccentricity influences the flow in two ways. First, by decreasing the distance between the two cylinders over part of their surfaces, it increases the local heat transfer due to conduction. Second, the eccentricity influences the connective mode of heat transfer. Results show that moderate positive values of eccentricity, enhance convective heat transfer. Results for a range of Grashof number are given, for varying eccentricity, for a radius ratio of 2.6 and a Prandtl number of 0. 706. Detailed predictions of the temperature and flow fields, and local heat transfer rates are given for representative cases. Also presented is the variation of average heat transfer rate and average shear stress with Grashof number and eccentricity. Comparisons with earlier numerical, experimental and analytic results are made.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 1983;105(1):117-123. doi:10.1115/1.3245529.

The effect of density inversion on steady natural convection heat transfer of cold water, between two horizontal concentric cylinders of gap width, L, is studied numerically. Water near its freezing point is characterized by a density maximum at 4°C. Numerical solutions are obtained for cylinders with nonlinear Rayleigh numbers RA ranging from 2 × 103 to 7.6 × 104 , a radius ratio 1.75 ≤ ra ≤ 2.6 and an inversion parameter γ, relating the temperature for maximum density with the cavity wall temperatures, between −2 and 2. The results obtained are presented graphically in the form of streamline and isotherm contour plots. The heat transfer characteristics, velocity profiles, and local and overall Nusselt numbers are studied. The results of the present study were found qualitatively valid when compared with an experimental investigation carried out in the past.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 1983;105(1):124-129. doi:10.1115/1.3245530.

This paper examines the interaction by natural convection between a fluid-saturated porous medium and a fluid reservoir separated by a vertical impermeable partition. The two fluid systems are maintained at different temperatures. The analysis is simplified by assuming Pr > > 1 in the fluid reservoir. It is shown analytically that the flow and temperature fields in the boundary layer regime consist of two fluid layers in counterflow. The interface temperature is shown to increase monotonically with altitude. The important dimensionless group which governs the fluid mechanics is B = (kRaK 1/2 ) / (k′ Ra1/4 ), where k, k′ , RaK and Ra are, respectively, the porous medium conductivity, reservoir fluid conductivity, Darcy-modified Rayleigh number based on partition height, and the reservoir Rayleigh number based on partition height. The effect of parameter, B, on the flow, temperature, and heat transfer is documented in the range 0 < B < ∞.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 1983;105(1):130-137. doi:10.1115/1.3245531.

The thermal stability of a layer of water between two vertical parallel plates maintained at different temperatures, T1 and T2 , is investigated for the conduction regime. Three cases are considered include where: (a) the maximum density layer is within the water region; (b) is at the boundary; and (c) is outside the water region. Cubic polynomials are used to represent the density-temperature relation in the temperature range 0–55°C. The numerical results show that the critical states of stability do not depend on Prandtl number but instead depends on the combinations of T1 and T2 . Of the three cases considered, the first case is the most unstable. In all three cases, the instabilities set in as a traveling wave, moving against gravity, for most T1 and T2 combinations. Stationary waves were also found for case (c).

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 1983;105(1):138-143. doi:10.1115/1.3245532.

New correlations are presented for natural convective heat transfer from vertical isothermal surfaces in gases. The influences of variable properties are accounted for by using empirical equations which are of the general form Nu = g(Ra) • f(Ra, Tw /T∞ ). The influence of the reference temperature at which the thermal properties are evaluated is also established. Comparisons with available data are made over a Rayleigh number range 104 < Ra < 1012 and a range in the surface-to-ambient temperature ratio of 1 < Tw /T∞ < 2.6. Five data sets, which represent over 200 test points, are examined.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 1983;105(1):144-150. doi:10.1115/1.3245533.

A correlation theory for two-dimensional natural convective heat transport data for horizontal annuli of arbitrary cross section has been developed and applied to two configurations: (i) concentric circular cylinders and (ii) annuli formed by an inner hexagonal cylinder and an outer circular cylinder. Also embodied in the theory is the capability to predict local as well as mean heat transfer. Thermal boundary conditions of the form T′ xm can be accommodated. Data for the Rayleigh number (RaR ) varied from 10 to 107 , Prandtl number (Pr) varied from 0.7 to 3100, and the aspect ratio (Δ′ /r′ , maximum annulus gap/minimum radius of inner annulus) varied from 0.5 to 2.0. Even with these large variations, the present correlation theory collapses all the experimental data for the annular geometries to a signle line. The physical problem appears to be completely specified by a single equation when the following is known: thermal boundary condition (i.e., m), the fluid (i.e., Pr), the aspect ratio, the Rayleigh number, and the geometry. This work demonstrates that the present theory is applicable to annuli of arbitrary cross section, and therefore the theory will be extended to include curvature effects and axisymmetric geometry.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 1983;105(1):151-158. doi:10.1115/1.3245534.

The complex picture presented by a fire growing in a large building can be understood by considering the process as made up of a large number of space, time, and phenomena zones each one of which is to some degree independent of all others. This approach is explained in detail, the appropriate equations now in use in the Computer Fire Code V are listed and some results compared with full-scale experimental results.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 1983;105(1):159-165. doi:10.1115/1.3245535.

A multiwavelength laser transmission technique is used to determine soot volume fraction fields and aproximate particle size distributions in a forced flow combusting boundary layer. Measurements are made in diffusion flames of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and five liquid hydrocarbon fuels (n-heptane, iso-octane, cyclohexane, cyclohexene, and toluene) with ambient oxygen mass fractions in the range of 0.23 ≲ Y0∞ ≲ 0.50. Soot is observed in a region between the pyrolyzing fuel surface and the flame zone. Soot volume fraction increases monotonically with Y0∞ , e.g., n-heptane and PMMA are similar with soot volume fractions, fν , ranging from fν ∼ 5 × 10−7 at Y0∞ = 0.23 to fν ∼ 5 × 10−6 at Y0∞ = 0.50. For an oxygen mass fraction the same as air, Y0∞ = 0.23, soot volume fractions are approximately the same as values previously reported in pool fires and a free combusting boundary layer. However, the shape of the fν profile changes with more soot near the flame in forced flow than in free flow due to the different y-velocity fields in these two systems. For all fuels tested, a most probable particle radius is between 20 nm and 80 nm, and does not appear to change substantially with location, fuel, or oxygen mass fraction.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 1983;105(1):166-171. doi:10.1115/1.3245536.

The flow between pairs of flat plates was studied experimentally to gain insight into the operation of compact heat exchangers with interrupted surfaces. The plates were tested at low Reynolds number in both water and air streams. The investigation focused on the region of transition from steady to unsteady laminar flow between plates. A critical velocity was determined at which periodic oscillations were first observed. This velocity depends strongly on the thickness of the plates, t, plate length, L, and plate separation distance and weakly on flow disturbance level. Data for a range of geometries, 4 ≤ L/t ≤ 159, are correlated using plate wake width as a single plate length scale. The downstream plate was found to have a pronounced upstream influence on the critical velocity. In a low-disturbance-level stream the critical velocity may be lower than that required to produce detectable oscillations at the same point in the upstream plate wake in absence of the second plate. This feedback effect may be responsible for the relative insensitivity of the results to the turbulence level in the free stream.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 1983;105(1):172-177. doi:10.1115/1.3245537.

The forced convection heat transfer from two plates aligned with the flow direction in a wind tunnel was measured. The effects of leading edge bluntness, plate spacing distance, and Reynolds number on the leading and trailing plate average heat transfer rate were studied. The low Reynolds number, steady laminar and transitional flow regimes investigated are typical for compact heat exchangers. The measured heat transfer rate from the leading plate agrees well with laminar theory for thin plates when the leading edge is rounded. The heat transfer rate from the leading plate with a blunt nose ranges from slightly below theoretical at a Reynolds number which gives a long, steady separation bubble to well above theoretical under conditions of laminar separation and turbulent reattachment. The heat transfer rate from the second plate is influenced by the leading edge configuration of the first plate only at small plate spacing distances and high Reynolds number. At large spacings the mixing provided by the unsteady wake of the first plate dominates that due to the turbulence formed by leading edge separation on the first plate. The leading edge configuration of the second plate is important only at large values of plate spacing. The heat transfer rate from the second plate is generally higher than that predicted by theory for laminar, steady flow over thin plates and may be higher than that on the leading plate.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 1983;105(1):178-183. doi:10.1115/1.3245538.

A 0.3-m (12-in.) square vertical wind tunnel has been built to provide airflows in the range 2.4–5.8 m/s (490–1140 fpm) for fouling studies. Precipitated calcium carbonate dust can be fed into the airstream (which may be heated) prior to a heat exchanger model. The paper reports results on a four-row, four-pass spiral wound finned tube heat exchanger. Fouling tests have been carried out primarily near the extremes of surface heat flux available (1000 W/m2 to −700 W/m2 ). The results have been analyzed by the general method of Kays and London to give an effective nondimensional airside heat transfer parameter (StPr2/3 ) and a friction factor. Tests have covered the Reynolds number range from 1350 to 3800. Normalization of fouling data to fixed Reynolds numbers has given friction factor curves which increase to an asymptotic level between 1.4 and 2.5 times the initial value, whilst StPr2/3 values tend to fall by only 10–20 percent during the same time

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 1983;105(1):184-189. doi:10.1115/1.3245539.

Commercially available elements of a composite consisting of a plastic sheet coated with liquid crystal, another sheet with a thin layer of a conducting material (gold or carbon), and copper bus bar strips were evaluated and found to provide a simple, convenient, accurate, and low-cost measuring device for use in heat transfer research. The particular feature of the composite is its ability to obtain local heat transfer coefficients and isotherm patterns that provide visual evaluation of the thermal performances of turbine blade cooling configurations. Examples of the use of the composite are presented.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

TECHNICAL BRIEFS

J. Heat Transfer. 1983;105(1):190-192. doi:10.1115/1.3245541.
Abstract
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 1983;105(1):192-195. doi:10.1115/1.3245542.
Abstract
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 1983;105(1):195-197. doi:10.1115/1.3245543.
Abstract
Topics: Thawing , Heating
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 1983;105(1):197-200. doi:10.1115/1.3245544.
Abstract
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 1983;105(1):203-205. doi:10.1115/1.3245546.

A simple criterion of optimality of finned duct assemblies for heat transfer is defined. A necessary condition of optimality in the defined sense is found for assemblies with straight thin fins. A reduction of design effort resulting from the application of this condition is demonstrated.

Topics: Heat transfer , Fins , Design , Ducts
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 1983;105(1):205-208. doi:10.1115/1.3245547.
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 1983;105(1):208-210. doi:10.1115/1.3245548.
Abstract
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 1983;105(1):210-212. doi:10.1115/1.3245549.
Abstract
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Heat Transfer. 1983;105(1):212-214. doi:10.1115/1.3245550.
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

ERRATA

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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